Mikhail Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.
He was the founder of Russian science, making many discoveries and founding laboratories based on western scientific traditions.
His chemical and physical work was characterized by its emphasis on the use of atomic and molecular modes of explanation. He published views opposing the phlogiston theory, and suggested the Law of Conservation of Mass. In his experiments he anticipated such modern principles as the mechanical nature of heat and the kinetic theory of gases. In 1748, Lomonosov founded the first scientific chemical laboratory in Russia.
Lomonosov's other scientific interests were electricity, light, optical devices, mineralogy, meteorology, and astronomy.
Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus and the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reactions.
Lomonosov was also a writer and poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.
He made significant contributions to the philological study of the Russian language, including the development of a scientific vocabulary, and wrote a controversial History of Russia.
He later wrote a Russian grammar and adopted tonic versification, thus altering the character of Russian prosody. For his reform of the Russian literary language he chose an idiom midway between the Old Church Slavonic and spoken Russian.
In 1748 he wrote the "rhetoric", which became the first Russian anthologies of world literature.
Art of mosaics.
Lomonosov restored the ancient art of mosaics. In 1753 he founded in Ust-Rudnica the first mosaic factory producing colored glass and beads in Russia. He created some mosaics and outstanding pieces of art, the best is the portrait of Peter the Great and the Battle of Poltava, measuring 4.8 x 6.4 meters. producing some.
He also reorganized the academy of Science and created the system of higher education in Russia.
In 1755 he founded the Moscow University, in 1940 the university was renamed the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
In 1741 he returned from Germany to Russia and received a lifetime appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1761, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1764 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the Bologna Institute.
He was made professor of chemistry in the University of St. Petersburg; he ultimately became rector, and in 1764 secretary of state.
When he was ten years of age his father took the boy to assist his father in calling. But young Lomonosov understood that learning is passion and the eagerness for knowledge is unbounded.
In 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov traveled on foot from the Far North of Russia to Moscow. He obtained admission into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy by falsely claiming to be a priest’s son. There in spite of being mocked by other much younger students, obtained an extraordinarily broad education. During study at Moscow Lomonosov lived on three kopecks a day, eating only black bread and kvas, but he made rapid progress scholastically.
He completed a twelve-year study course in only five years, graduating at the top of his class. After three years in Moscow he was sent to Kiev to study for one year at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
In 1736, Lomonosov was awarded a scholarship to Saint Petersburg State University. He plunged into his studies and was rewarded with a grant to study abroad, in Germany.
There he studied at the University of Marburg (1736-1739) and in Freibergaat the School of Mining (1739-1741). At the University of Marburg Lomonosov became personal students of Wolff - a prominent figure of the German Enlightenment.
In 1739 in Marburg, he married the daughter of his landlady Elizabeth Christine Zilch.
According to some sources, on the road from Marburg he was forcibly recruited in the Prussian soldiers, but escaped from the fortress Veseli.
Although Lomonosov was a man of immense talent, his creative energies were somewhat thwarted by his domineering nature and peevish disposition.
He died in Saint Petersburg
Remains: Buried, Alexander Nevsky Monastery, St. Petersburg, Russia.