Muhammad is the founder of the religion of Islam (meaning "submission") and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and the last of the prophet of God (Arabic: Allāh).
He was a religious, political and military leader, a moral and social reformer, who founded the Muslim community. Muslims consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.
Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad was the last prophet and messenger of God, "Seal of the Prophets". Moreover Muslims traditionally agree upon that Muhammad received the final revelation in the form of the Qur'an for all mankind, for all time.
According to the Qur'an God has bestowed upon Muhammad six favors: He has been endowed with the gift of pithy and perfect speech. He was granted victory owing to his awe. The spoils of war were made lawful unto him. The whole earth has been made the place of worship for him.
His fundamental teachings were: there is one God; people must in all things submit to Him; in this world nations have been amply punished for rejecting God's prophets, and heaven and hell are waiting for the present generation; the world will come to an end with a great judgment. In the Muhammad teaching were stated
The Five Pillars of Islam (Sunni) - the five basic devotional-ritual duties of Islam:
1.Shahada (profession of faith)"testifying that 'There is no god but God and Mohammad is the Messenger of God';"
2. Salah (prayers), "five daily prayer services;"
3. Zakat (giving of alms, specifically during Ramadan) "almsgiving;"
4.Sawm (fasting) "fasting during daylight in the month of Ramadan,"
5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca, home of the Masjid al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque), the most famous Islamic mosque).
He included as religious duties frequent prayer and almsgiving, and he forbade usury.
The ethical system of Islam includes some main principles which allowing all people to live in love, peace, and harmony. One of the great contribution of Mohammad in the development of social relationships is his affirmation of the principles of universal brotherhood and doctrine of the equality of mankind. In Islam, all races and ethnicities are equal and women are equal to men in humanity but they have different responsibilities.
Muslims are ordered to respect other people's believes even atheists . Hate against other cultures and religions are prohibited.
Muhammad said: Respect your parents and love them even if they treat you wrong. Help others when ever you can, giving to the poor is a must.
Thus Muslims should respect every living thing (including plants). Murdering the peaceful is strictly prohibited in Qur'an ("killing one person is like killing all of mankind").
Robbery, cheating, breaking promise, laying, and dis-modesty Prostitution Alcohols and drugs are prohibited. It is recognized, that Allah is seeing everything people do. One of the greatest life lessons from Muhammad’s service is the importance of a fulfillment of one's own destination and the value of sustained efforts and right actions.
“God loves those who do good.” (Quran 3:134).
“Allah is with those who fulfil their duty and with those who are good-doers”.(Surat an-Nahl: 127-128)
and Those who do good will have the best and more! (Surah Yunus: 26)
In 632 after completing the pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad delivered a famous speech known as The Farewell Sermon. In this sermon, Muhammad said:
... you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you… All mankind is from Adam and Eve. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab; white has no superiority over black, nor does a black have any superiority over white; none have superiority over another except by piety and good action.
“Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you.”(Qur'an 5:3)
Among his last words were: "We the community of Prophets are not inherited. Whatever we leave is for charity."
Muhammad was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general.
His great achievement was the uniting of the Arab tribes. At Medina he built his model theocratic state and from there ruled his rapidly growing empire. Muhammad established a new powerful polity from the Atlantic to the Indus River, that later developed into the Arab Empire or Caliphate.
The life and ministry of Muhammad
The first revelation (610). According to Islamic beliefs, at age 40, in the year 610 in the month of Ramadan, Muhammad received his first revelation from God. Archangel Gabriel visited him in the cave of the mountain of Hira near Mecca and informed Muhammad that he was the messenger of God. Gabriel commanded him to recite verses sent by God said to Muhammad: "Iqraa," meaning Read or Recite. Also Gabriel order him to preach the Message.
These revelations continued until his death twenty-three years later. The content of these revelations, known as the Islam's holy book, the Qur'an was memorized and recorded by his followers and compiled into a single volume shortly after his death.
Preaching and resistance (613-621). Three years after he began to preach publicly (c. 613), urging the rich to give to the poor and calling for the destruction of idols. In his first years Muhammad made few converts and gained disciples and followers. Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "year of sorrow".
Night Journey. Islamic tradition relates, around the year 621, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous journey with the angel Gabriel in one night. They both mounted a white winged horse Al-Burāq and began the journey to Jerusalem where he met Abraham and Moses. Then they went on a journey that transcended time and space through the seven heavens. Most Muslims consider it a physical journey while others say it happened spiritually through a metaphorical vision.
Madina and the rise to power (622-630). In 622 the leaders of the Quraish decided to kill the Prophet. Gabriel informed the Prophet of the plan and instructed him to leave Mecca immediately. On the 24 September 622 he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib). This flight, known as the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic era.. This year marks the beginning of the Muslim Hijra calendar: 1A.H. ( After Hijra).
In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes of the Arabian Peninsula into a federation of allied tribes with its capital at Medina. In Medina, Muhammad married several women, mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, Muhammad enforced his position in the region, through some successful military campaigns. His renown increased, and in 629 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca without interference.
In 630 he marched against Mecca, which fell without a fight. He declared an amnesty for past offences and converted Most Meccans to Islam. Thus he won control of all Arabia and became Ruler of the Muslims.
Muhammad's father Abdallah died almost six months before he was born. He lost his mother when he was 6 and became fully orphaned. Muhammad was put in the care of his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib for 2 years, and after that with his uncle Abu Talib, until he reached mature age. He grew up to be a successful and wealthy merchant.
In the year 595, when he was 25, he married Khadija, a wealthy widow at the age of 40. The marriage lasted for 25 years, was a happy one and he had no other wife in Khadija's lifetime. He had with her six children - four daughters and two sons, who both died in childhood. All except two of his daughters, Fatimah and Zainab, died before him. Discontented with life in Mecca, he, from time to time, retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection.
Muhammad is one of the most influential figures in history. Islamic tradition stresses his exclusively human nature. He lived a most simple, austere and modest life. He used to spend one- to two-thirds of every night in prayer and meditation.
Mohammed is said to have been of sturdy build, with a prominent forehead, a hooked nose, large brownish-black eyes, and a pleasant smile. He showed great tact in his dealings with people and, when appropriate, gentleness and even tenderness. Muhammad is still has served as an example for all Muslims and perceived as the ultimate subject of emulation.
He made his last journey to Mecca in 632, establishing the rites of the Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. A few months after returning to Medina, Muhammad fell ill and died in his favourite wife A'isha arms, on Monday, June 8, 632, at the age of 63.
He is buried where he died, which was in Aisha's house and is now housed within the Mosque of the Prophet in the city of Medina.