Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III of Macedon, was an Ancient Greek king (basileus) of Macedon, Emperor, who created one of the largest empires in ancient history.
Alexander was a great conqueror, ingenious and the most successful military leader of all time, who never lost a single battle.
His empire, covered more than one million square miles, extended from Thrace to Egypt and from Greece to the Indus valley.
Alexander not only established a great kingdom, he also spread the Greek Culture and language throughout this empire. By then this era became known as the Hellenistic Age, when the culture, ideas and influence of Greece spread throughout the known world.
Alexander the Great remembered for his military talent, strategical and tactical ability, such as military organization and proper concentration of superior force at the vital points.
He moved forward quickly and vigorously begin with a few sure victories, gaining new resources, money and even the new soldiers.
He conquered the Tyre, city which was on an island in the Mediterranean Sea by building in seven months a bridge to this island.
He took the battle right to the center of the opposing forces, and he threw himself into the very worst of the battle.
He always set an example for his troops. When his soldiers didn't have water or food, He also starved, when they were walking, he walked also.
Alexander was kind and loyal to the people of Persia. He usually did not allow his soldiers to mistreat the conquered people.
When he had won a battle, he combined the remaining soldiers of the enemy with his army to form a greater army.
Remarkable though his conquests were, Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign, but the cultural diffusion engendered by his conquests.
Reign: 336–323 BC
Titles: Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt and King of Asia
He succeeded to the throne in 336 B.C. and immediately showed his talent for leadership by quieting the restive cities of Greece.
In the spring of 335 he conquered the Thracian Triballians south of the Danube. Alexander completely dominated Greece, invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of successful campaigns lasting ten years.
In 334 BC Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont and invaded Persia with approximately 42,000 soldiers from Macedon and various Greek city-states. In the same year he defeated a Persian army at the Granicus River.
At the Battle of Issus in 333, he defeated another army, this one led by the Persian king Darius III, who managed to escape.
He then took Syria and Phoenicia, cutting off the Persian fleet from its ports. In 332 he victoriously completed a seven-month siege of Tyre, considered his greatest military achievement, and then took Egypt.
There he received the pharaohs' double crown and founded Alexandria, named it for himself, which became a great center of learning in Egypt.
In control of the eastern Mediterranean coast, in 331 he defeated Darius in a decisive battle at Gaugamela, though Darius again escaped.
He next took the province of Babylon.
He burnt Xerxes' palace at Persepolis, Persia, in 330
Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea", Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against Porus, a ruler of a region in the Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC. Creating of the great empire was completed.
Alexander' received much inspiration from his mother Olympias of Epirus, that influenced him later in his life. She often told him that a god fathered him and that someday he would be a great leader and conqueror. She had told Alexander that he was a direct descendent of Achilles, on her side. He would sleep with a copy of Homers' Iliad under his pillow, and often identified himself with the hero Achilles. Later she revealed to him that his real father was Zeus, which had come to Olympias in the form of a snake.
At age16 and then 18 he showed his military brilliance, helping his father in war against Byzantium, and win the Battles of Chaeronea.
When he was 20, Philip was assassinated by his guard plunged a spear into his chest. And around June 336 Alexander succeeded his father's throne.
Alexander married thrice, Roxana, daughter of a Bactrian nobleman, out of love; and Stateira, a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III and Parisat, daughter of the Persian king Artaxerxes III, out of political interest.
He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon (b. 323 BC) of Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon (b. 327 BC) from his concubine Barsine.
His enormous empire was divided up among his three generals and later after a series of civil wars, split again into numerous regions.
He was blond and handsome, with one gray eye and one black, brave, strong, extremely athletic but short, with a shrill voice and a slightly tilted head.
Alexander's most evident personality traits were his violent temper and impulsive nature, which revealed particularly when he had been drinking and in his later years, he drank heavily.
But generally Alexander was perceptive, logical, and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader
Alexander had many more female companions and had accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings. But he used it rather sparingly; showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".
In 324 BC his closest friend and possibly lover Hephaestion died of of a fever, or possibly of poisoning. It devastated Alexander, he fell ill at Babylon after long drinking and died at age 33. BC. Some say he was poisoned and others believe he died of malaria. He was buried in Alexandria, Egypt.
A few months later his wife Rhoxana bore him a son, who was assassinated in 309.