You are here: Genvive Joy Paul Guilford
1. Structure of Intellect (SOI) or (SI): three-dimensional model.
Guilford proposed that intelligence is not a unitary concept and introduced a three-dimensional theoretical model of the Structure of the intellect, according to which the intellect may be represented by three aspects—the operation (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation), products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications), and content (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral). The final version of the SOI model (1988) was resembled as a cube with3 dimesions, or 6 x 5 x 6 figure, that yields a total of 180 possible unique abilities, which are correlated with each other.
2. Creativity. Guilford in his 1950 American Psychological Association (APA) presidential address emphasized the central significance of creative talent for industry, science, arts and education and the need for more research into the nature of creativity. He developed a theory of creativity, in which he described creativity as sensitivity to problems ( 1950); as divergeny yhinking and ability to generate multiple ideas (1959), creation of new patterns, a transformation of knowledge and meaning or use the functions of objects in a new way (1962, 1967).
3. Divergent thinking. Guilford first proposed the concept of Divergent Thinking in the 1950s and later introduced its developed model as the main ingredient of creativity (1976). Thus he associated divergent thinking with creativity, appointing it several characteristics: 1.fluency (the ability to produce great number of ideas or problem solutions); 2. flexibility (the ability to simultaneously propose a variety of approaches to a specific problem); 3. originality (the ability to produce new, original ideas); 4. elaboration (the ability to systematize and organize the details of an idea in a head and carry it out). He also emphasized the distinction between convergent and divergent thinking.
4. Psychometric study of human intelligence. Guilford is one of the leaders of the psychometric school of research on intelligence, creativity and personality.
He initiated the development of a system of psychological tests for the study of productive thought and creative abilities of the individual. He designed numerous tests that measured divergent or creative thinking and the intellectual ability of creative people.
Guilford’s methods have been widely used with the practical aim of identifying the creative potentialities of engineers and scientific workers and gifted students.
Guilford taught at the University of Kansas (1927 – 1928), Associate Professor at University of Nebraska (1928 – 1940), Psychology professor at the University of Southern California (1940 – 1967). In 1938 Guilford became the 3rd President of the Psychometric Society.
In 1941 he entered the U.S. Army and served as Director of Psychological Research Unit No. 3 at Santa Ana Army Air Base.
After the war, he joined the Education faculty at the University of Southern California where he continued to work on the intelligence tests that measured divergent thinking and creativity.
Family: His wife – Ruth and his daughter - Joan S. McGuire (Author of the book about her father “An Odyssey of the SOI Mode”
Guilford retired from teaching in 1967, but continued to write and publish.
He died on November 26, 1987 in Los Angeles, California.