Classical and modern creativity  techniques


Matrix of the main creativity techniques

I. Three pillars of  activating creativity

1. Classical Brainstorming (Alex Osborn).
2. Synectics (William Gordon).
3. Morphological Analysis (Fritz Zwicky).

1. Classical brainstorming

1.1.  Structure and procedures difference

1. Reverse (Negative) Brainstorming.
1.1. Reverse brainstorming.
1.2. Negative Brainstorming.
2. Combined Brainstorming.
2.1. Double brainstorming.
2.2. Reverse and classical (direct) brainstorming.
2.3. Reverse -Classical (direct) – Reverse brainstorming.
2.4.  Shuttle Brainstorming.
3. Question  Brainstorming.
4.  Stop-And-Go Brainstorming.
5. Gordon-Little Variation (Progressive Revelation technique).
was suggested by William Gordon in the 1950s (named by VanGundy, 1981 as the Gordon-Little technique).
6. Rawlinson Brainstorming (J. G. Rawlinson, 1970).
7. Kaleidoscope Brainstorming Technique (KBS) (silent brainstorming) or Multiple Mind Conferencing (MMC)  (by Dr. Murthy).
8. Wildest Idea Technique.
9. Individual Brainstorming.
10. Brainwriting.
11. Individual brainwriting.
Variation: Write a list of 101 ideas.

1.2. Group techniques

1. Group Brainwriting  Technique.
2. Brainwriting Pool (BP) Battelle Institute of Frankfurt, Germany
3. The Gallery Method.
3.1. Post It Note Brainstorming.
3.2. Display Brainstorming.
3.3.   Brainwalking.
4.  6-3-5 Brainwriting (also known as the 6-3-5 Method, or Method 635) was developed by  Bernd Rohrbach (1968).
5. Brainwriting Game.
6. Constrained Brainwriting.
6.1. Cued brainwriting.
6.2. Structured brainwriting.
7. Round-Robin and Roundtable Brainstorming (Spencer Kagan, 1992).
7.1. Round-Robin  Technique (The verbal version).
7.2. Roundtable Brainstorming (the written version).
a) One paper version.
b) Stack of cards version.
c) Small groups version.
d)  Sequencing version.
8. Group Passing Technique.
8.1. One idea and many papers version.
8.2. The same piece of paper and many ideas version.
8.3. Idea Book Technique.
9. Nominal Group Technique.
(A. L. Delbecq, A. H. VandeVen, 1971).
10. The Buzz Session  (J.D. Phillips,1948).
Variation. Phillips 66 Buzz Session.
11. Rolestorming Technique  (R. E.Griggs,1985), described by VanGundy (1988).
12. Rotating roles.
13. Blue Slips Technique (C. C. Crawford, 1920s).
14. The Pin Card Technique was developed by the Battelle Institute (H. Geschka, et al., 1981).
15. The K-J Method was developed as the Affinity Diagram (Jiro Kawakita, 1960s).
16. Snowballing Technique.

1.3. Brainstorming combined with other famous  techniques

1. Team Idea Mapping.
2. The Сlassic Сluster Brainstorming Method (The Bubble Method).
3. Card Story Boards.
4. Trigger Method (J. E. Bujake, 1969).
5. Imaginary Brainstorming.
6. Air Cliché ( Arthur B. Vangundy).
7. Battelle-Buildmappen-Brainwriting (BBB) Battelle Institute in Frankfurt, Germany. (J. N Warfield, H. Geschka and R. Hamilton, 1975).
8. Visual Brainstorming.
9. Rightbraining.
10. Braindrawing.
11. Brain Sketch (A. Van Gandy, 1988).
12. Electronic Brainstorming, Online Brainstorming or Brainlining (Peter Lloyd).
13. Directed Brainstorming.
14. The Military Brainstorming Version as the part of “Appreciation Process”, which was developed by the both UK and Australia (G. Klein, M. Sebell and others).
15. Variable Brainstorming.
16. Highlighting.
17. Value Brainstorming.
18. Didactic Brainstorming.
19. Best Idea Brainstorming.
20. Brainstorming Deluxe (Greg Bachman, 2000).

2. Synectics

• Developing of creative vision.
• Synectics’ technology: theoretical background, principles and techniques.
• Methods of organizing and optimizing synectic sessions.

3. Morphological analysis

• Technology of morphological analysis: methodological background, principles and techniques.
• Morphological analysis of problems and objects.
• Methods of constructing the “Morphological matrix”.
• Modern versions and related techniques:
1. Attribute Listing, Attribute Association Technique (R. Crawford, A. VanGundy).
2. SCIMITAR system (J.Carson).
3. Component Detailing Technique (Wakin,1985).
4. Sequence-Attribute modification matrix.
5. “Morphological Forced Connections” (D. Koberg and J. Bagnall).

II. The classic methods of activating creativity

Creative problem solving techniques

1. Method of catalog (F. Kunze).
2. Focal Objects Method (Ch. Whiting).
3. Forced Analogy (R. Olson)
4. Forced Transfer and Forced Comparisons (J. Wyckoff)
5. Interrogatories Techniques
6. Kipling technique  (5Ws/H).
7. Idea-Spurring Questions techniques, Checklists (G. Polya, T. Eiloart, R. Crawford, J. Pearson,  A. Osborn’s Checklists etc.).
8. Associations technique, method of garlands of coincidences and associations (G. Bush); Free Association Activities
9. Analogy Technique.
10. Metaphorical Thinking  (G.Morgan).
11. Visual Thinking Technique (R. McKim).
12. Guided Visualization, Imageworks.
13. Reversal method, Problem Reversal (Ch. Thompson).
14. Mind mapping (T  Buzan.).
15. Lateral Thinking (de Bono E.).
16. Six Thinking Hats Technique (de Bono E).
17. Concept Fan, Provocation Technique (de Bono E).

TRIZ – Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

Classical variant (G.S. Altshuller) and its modern modifications
• Theoretical background and basic principles of TRIZ;
• Formula for victory over the task:
– Identification of key contradictions,
– Definition of an Ideal Final Result,
– Resource-efficient utilization.
• Algorithm of problems solving, application of the method for solving the real-world business and  life problems;

III. Special and modern methods of creativity activation

1. Wishful Thinking  Technique (A. VanGundy).
2. Progressive abstraction Technique (H. Geschka).
3. Multiple Redefinition (T. Rickards).
4. Reframing  Matrix  (M. Morgan).
5. Algorithm of Relations (H. Crovitz).
6. Decomposable matrices Technique (H. Simon).
7. Disjointed Incrementalism Technique (D. Braybrooke, C. Lindblom).
8. Focus Groups (R. Merton, E. Dichter).
9. Force-field analysis is a technique (K. Lewin).
10. Boundary Examination Technique.
11. Bug List Technique.
12. Modelling.
13. Lotus Blossom Technique.
14. DO IT (R. Olsen).
15. Eight Disciplines Problem Solving.
16. Simplex ( M. Basadur).
17. Osborn-Parnes Model of CPS.
18. Disney Creativity Strategy (R. Dilts).
19. Unconscious Problem Solving,
– Working with Dreams and Images (D.Glouberman),
– 3B (Bus, bed, bath) Technique,
– Fishhooking,
– Free Writing/Wet Inking.
20. Indirect Strategies (B.Anno, P.Schmidt),
21. Other sensory languages (D.Adams).
22. Surfacing assumptions technique.
23. Left Right Brain Alternations technique.
24. Peaceful Setting technique.
25. What -If Technique.
26. Playing and Humorous approach.
27. Edison technique, Method “ Trial and error”.
23. Manipulative verbs Technique,
28. “Scamper” (B. Eberle),
29. “Transform” (D.Iain, D. Berg).
30. Wise Counsel Technique (S. Parnes);
– Creating Personal Hall of Fame (M. Michalko),
– “Superheroes” or Napoleon Technique,
– Other Peoples Viewpoints.
31. System “The Universal Traveler“ (D. Koberg, J.Bagnal).
32. System “Playful Perception Technique” (H. Left)  and other Creative Technique.

Markov, S.L. (2010). Metody activisazii tvorchestva I tvorcheskogo vyrishennia upravlinskich problem/O.Zaharov [Methods for activating creativity and creative managerial problem solving]. Pravnychyi visnyk universitetu “KROK”, 6, 38-45.


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