Creativity as a problem solving

Creativity as a problem-finding and problem-solving

Productive thinking as an internal activity that focuses on the mastery of a task (O. Kulpe, 1895, N.Ach, 1905; K. Marbe, 1922; O. Selz, 1924); Creativity as a process of transformation of a problematic situation into the resolved one (J. Dewey, 1910); Creativity as the insightful problem solving (W. Köhler, 1925; K. Duncker, 1945; M. Wertheimer, 1945);  Behavioral mechanisms of problem solving  (N. R. F. Maier, 1940; I. Maltzman,1955); Sensitivity to problems (J.Guilford,1950);  The first Creative Problem Solving (CPS): three distinct stages: Fact-Finding, Idea-Finding and Solution-Finding (A. F. Osborn, 1953, 1979); The Creative Problem Solving Process (CPS), the Osborn-Parnes CPS process: 1. Exploring the Challenge Mess-finding (Objective Finding), Fact-finding, Problem-Finding, 2. Generate Ideas Idea-finding, 3. Prepare for Action Solution finding (Idea evaluation), Acceptance-finding (Idea implementation) (A. F. Osborn, 1953,  S. J. Parnes, 1967); The theory of problem-solving and creative thinking (A. Newell, J.C. Shaw, H.A. Simon (1958, 1962); Sensitivity to problems, the process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements and forming ideas, solution or hypotheses and testing them (E. Torrance1962, 1967); Creative problem-solving programs and methods S. J Parnes, A. Meadow, 1959, 1960; A. Meadow, S. J. Parnes,  H.W. Reese, 1959, S. J. Parnes, 1963); Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (J. Guilford, 1967);  Problem-solving process (J. Kozielecki, 1969); Creativity as a process of problem solving and resolution of contradictions (G.S. Altshuller, 1964, 1979; B.V. Kedrov, 1969; D.C. Tikhomirov, 1969; Bogoyavlenskaya D.B., 1971;  A.F. Esaulov, 1972; A.M. Matyushkin, 1972; J. A. Ponomarev, 1976; A.V. Brushlinskii, 1979; G.J. Bush, 1974; V.A.Molyako, 1983; V.A. Yakovlev, 1989);  Creative problem-solving methods, techniques and tools (W. Gordon, 1961; Edward de Bono, 1972;  J.L.Adams, 1974; T. Rickards, 1974; T. Buzan, 1976;  D. Koberg, J. Bagnal, 1976, R. Ackoff; 1978; Roger von Oech 1983; M. Zdenek, 1983; A.B. VanGundy, 1988; M.Michalko, 1991; J. Wyckoff, 1991;  С. Crawford, 1983);  Process of problem finding, an intellectual vision of the missing elements (M. Czikszentmihalyi, J. W. Getzels, 1965, 1970, 1976; J.A. Glover,1979; R. Weisberg, J. Alba,1981; M. T. Moor, 1983; S. J. Parnes, S. G.Isaksen, 1985; R. Ochse, 1990; M. T. Moore, M. C. Murdock, 1991; М. Runco, I. Chund, 1992; T. Amabile, 1996; D. Perkins, 1997); The CPS includes five stages, to include Fact-Finding, Idea-Finding, Solution-Finding, Problem-Finding and Acceptance-Finding (S. J. Parnes, 1967; R. B. Noller, S. J. Parnes, A. M. Biondi, 1976; S. J. Parnes, Noller, A. M. Biondi, 1977).
Problem solving and cognitive processes (D.M. Johnson, 1972;  P.K.Arlin, 1974; G. S. Welsch, 1975;  J. H. Flavell, 1976;   J. G. Greeno, 1980;  J. Davidson, R. Sternberg, 1982; H. Gardner, 1985;   R.E. Mayer,1983); Intuition in the creative problem solving (H. H Anderson, 1959; K. Raaheim, 1976, 1984;    M. Polanyi, 1981); Problem solving and creative thinking (R. E. Mayer, 1983; R. W. Weisberg, 1988); Cognitive styles in problem solving (S. G. Isaksen, G. J. Puccio,1988; S. G. Isaksen, K.B. Dorval, G. Kaufmann, 1991); Problem construction and cognition  (M. D. Mumford, R. Reiter-Palmon,  M. R. Redmond, 1994).

The model of creative problem solving

The model of creative problem solving (CPS) (Buffulo Group). The fundamental model of creative problem solving (CPS) (D. J. Treffinger, S. G. Isaksen, R. L. Firestien, 1982); The CPS includes six stages: Data-Finding, Mess-Finding, Idea-Finding, Solution-Finding, Problem-Finding, Acceptance-Finding and accomplishes a reasonable balance between ‘diverging’ and ‘converging.’ (S. G.Isaksen, D. J.Treffinger, 1985); Ecological approach to CPS (S. G. Isaksen, G. J. Puccio, D. J.Treffinger, 1993); CPS framework that includes three distinct components: “Understanding the Problem, Generating Ideas and Planning for Action” and six stages (S. G. Isaksen, K. B. Dorval, D. J. Treffinger, 1994); Modified CPS to become “easier to learn and use” and adding a fifth convergent thinking rule (J.Vehar, R. Firestien, B. Miller, 1999).  
Modern approaches to problem solvingKnowledge integration and problem-solving (S. Hélie, R. Sun, 2002); Evaluation process in problem solving (Hiroaki Suzuki, Kazuo Hiraki, 2003; Hiroaki Suzuki, 2004); Sensitivity to problems, and setting and testing hypotheses, which is preceded by the comprehensive perception of the core of the problem or the problematic situation  (M. Zidan, 2006); Process of creative problem finding   (W.P. Hu, Q. Han, 2006; L. M. Surhone, 2010); Problem solving  by Productive Thinking Model (T. Hurson, 2007); CPS comprises of three conceptual stages:  Clarification, Transformation, Implementation,  six explicit process steps with six repetitions of divergence and convergence within each, and one central executive step (G. J. Puccio, M.C. Murdock, M. Mance, 2007); Problem-solving styles and creativity (J.C. Houtz, E.C. Selby, 2009); A unified theory and a connectionist model of creative problem solving: Incubation and Insight (S. Hélie, R. Sun, 2010).
Creative problem solving in education   (John Dewey,1910; J. H. Flavell, 1976;  D. T. Tuma,  F. Reif, 1980; O.K. Duell, 1986; L.B. Resnick, L.E. Klopfer;  S. R. Yussen, 1985,  S G. Isaksen, D. J. Treffinger, 1991; W.J. Stepien, S.A. Gallagher, D. Workman, 1993; G. D. Shack, 1993; W. J. Stepien, S. A Gallagher, D. Workman, 1993; B.L.Gramond, 2009); Problem-Based Learning (A.M. Matyushkin, 1968,  I.Y. Lerner, 1974; M.I. Makhmutov, 1977; A. V. Brushlinskii, 1983, V.T. Kudryavtsev, 1991); Training in creative problem solving: problem-solving skills  (M. S Basadur, G. B Graen, S. G. Green, 1982); Interaction of creative thinking skills, attitudes and behaviours (M.S. Basadur, M.A. Runco, L.A. Vega, 2000).
Universal essence and cross-cutting nature of problem solving (H. Gardner, 1985; M. W Matlin, 1989; M. Runco, G. Dow, 1999); Close relation and identity of the processes of thinking, problem solving and creativity (I. A.Taylor, 1959, 1963; E. Bono, 1970; E.Torrance, 1976, 1995; J. Guilford, 1977, 1979; D.W. MacKinnon, 1978; D. Perkins,1981; H. Simon, 1985; G. Kaufmann, 1988; J.F. Voss, 1989; M. T. Moore, M. C. Murdock, 1991; M. Runco, 1994, S. G. Isaksen, 1995); Problem solving and creative thinking (R. E. Mayer, 1983; R. W. Weisberg, 1988); Interaction of creative thinking skills, attitudes and behaviours (M.S. Basadur, M.A. Runco, L.A. Vega, 2000); Model of creative problem solving (TRoP) as the interaction of goal and created trial structures and options of it achieving (E. Necka, 1994, 2003).

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