- Main Theories of Creativity
- Universe theories of Creativity
- Сreativity as the unfolding and embodiment of the Absolute
- Creativity as achievement and realization of a Freedom
- Creativity as the creation and implementation of Possibilities
- Creative Developing Interaction
- Creativity as the creation and realization of the Whole
- Worldgenic theories of Creativity
- Creativity as realization of Creative Attitude and Sense Creation
- Creative activity
- Creativity as a problem solving
- Unified theory of Creativity
- Universal mechanisms of Creativity
- The Main Stages of Creativity
1. Сreativity as the unfolding of the Absolute, a universal process of evolution and Creativity of Nature
1.1. Creativity as an embodiment of the Absolute and the co-creation of man with the creative power of the Supreme Reality
Man as an mediator between heaven and earth, as an active, creative force – “qian” (“Book of Changes” (“I Ching”), 16th. -12th. c. BC); Creativity as a secondary act of creation, the unity of Brahman and Atman (Hinduism, 15th. c. BC); The principle of the analogy of human creativity and divine creativity, occurring under the laws of harmony (Neo Pythagoreanism, 1st c. BC-3rd. c. AD); Emanation of the One, out of abundance and surplus (Plotinus, 3rd c. AD, Proclus, 5th c. AD); Co-creation as a one breath with the Absolute reality (Ibn Arabi, 12th-13th c.); Confluence and co-vision with the Divine (M. Eckhart, 13th-14th c.); Unity of Creator and creation, the creative power of man (Nicholas of Cusa, 15th. c.); Co-creation with the Absolute and Nature through transcendental intuitive contemplation (F. Schelling, 1802); Self-revelation of the Absolute Spirit (Hegel, 1807); Embodiment of beauty, harmony, perfection and spiritual which are contained in Nature (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); The concept of “transcreation” or complementary act of God, raising the soul from animality to humanity; Implementation of the divine creative force of will, living in a man, free creativity of substantial figures (N.O. Lossky, 1906, 1927); Creativity as super-personal experience, “escape from emotion and personality”, expression and development of tradition living within the creator (T.S. Eliot, 1920, 1932); Creativity as a free self-realization of person, as a spiritual being, transforming and embodying the absolute values (R. T. Flewelling, 1926); Implementation of universal archetypes (C. Jung, 1928); Co-creation with God (N. Berdyaev, 1935); Human Creativity as a creative expression of absolute, universal force (Nishida Kitaro, 1927, 1945); Creativity as the forming principle and way of a human being, person as the primary creative reality (E. Mounier, 1936); Evolution as the concentration and planetarization of consciousness (Teilhard de Chardin, 1955).
1.2. Сo-creation with the ultimate Creative force by achieving the higher states of consciousness
Achieving liberation (Moksha) and dissolution in the Absolute (Hinduism, 15 th. c. BC); Creativity as a result of divine inspiration (Plato,5th – 4th.c. BC); State of “super-sensible ” ecstasy and ecstatic ascent of the human soul to the One (Plotinus, 3rd. c. AD, Proclus (5th.c.AD); “Prophetic inspiration”, the transcendental ecstasy (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); Achievement and embodiment of the Cosmic Consciousness (R.M. Bucke, 1901); Mystic psychography, automatic writing, clairvoyance (T. Flournoy, 1900), Divine intuition (J. Maritain, 1953); Activity of supra-conscious (P. Sorokin, 1961); Peak-experience, transcendental ecstasy (A.Maslow, 1968); The unity of creativity and Psi-phenomena: motivation, relaxation and dissociation (Gardner Murphy, 1969); Transpersonal experience and perception (Roy Dreistadt, 1971); Extrasensory perception, hypersensitivity, telepathy (S. Krippner, G. Murphy, 1966, 1973); Implementation of creative higher states of consciousness (S.Tart, 1975); Dreaming as the deployment of a hidden order (M. Ullman, 1973, 1979); Reaching the state of Flow (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975); Creativity as an activity of Super-consciousness (K. Stanislavsky, 1926, 1938; P.V. Simonov, 1975); Over-consciousness (M.G. Yaroshevsky, 1983); Manifestation of the highest unconscious (the highest form of intuition and inspiration) (R. Assadzholi, 1973); Manifestation of the super-conscious and realization of the spectrum of creativity (W. Harman, J. Reinhold, 1984); Creativity as a transcendental meditation (R. Walsh, D. Shapiro, 1984, 2006, Michael Murphy, S. Donovan, 1988, 1997; M. Kwee, 1990; M. Murphy, R. White, 1995; R. Horan, 2009); Expansion and widening of consciousness, realization of the universal creative force (S. Grof, 1998).
1.3. Creativity as mutual transitions of Being and Nothing
The appearance and disappearance as a mutual transitions of chaos and cosmos, the limit and infinity (Anaximander, 7th -6th c. BC, Pythagoras, 6th -5th c. BC); Emergence of Being inside Nothing, in the process of permanent mutual transition of universal polar forces the yin and the yang (Laozi, 6th -5th c. BC); Flow of becoming which involves being and nothing as its separate aspects (Heraclitus, 6th -5th c. BC); Creativity as a transition from Nothing into Being (Plato, 5th – 4th BC); Creation as a transition from invisible state to visible one (Sextus Empiricus, 2nd – 3rd c. AD); Creativity as self-unfolding and folding of the Absolute, as the coincidence of opposites (coincidentia oppositorum) (Nicholas of Cusa, 1460); Development and becoming as the transition from being to nothing (and conversely) (Hegel, 1806).
Synergetic model of creativity. Autopoiesis: self-generation, self-organization, self-production (H. Maturana, F. Varela, 1973); Universal process of birth order and form out of chaos (R. May, 1975); Creativity as a spontaneous generation of order out of chaos (Ilya Prigogine, 1980, 1984, H. Haken, 1981); Creativity and development as a spontaneous and directed transformation (D. Feldman, 1988); Creativity as a Spontaneous self-organization of Metaconscience (V.V. Nalimov, 1989); Creativity as self-organization as the path from chaos to the integrity and coherence (F. Barron, 1990), Creativity as overcoming the chaos, the union of order and disorder and the creation of a new qualitative patterns (V. Kenny, H. Gardner, 1988, E. Morin, 1994; S. Kauffman, 1995); Chaos as a creative origin, as a complicated order, as a condition and source of self-organization and creativity (E.N. Knyazeva, S.P . Kurdyumov, 1988, 1992; D. Chernavskiy, 1990; I.S. Dobronravova, 1991; V.I. Arshinov 1977; R.A. Brage, 2004; A.A. Koblyakov, 2010; O.I. Glazunova, 2012); The unity of understanding of creativity both in the Synergetic and Eastern philosophy (F. Capra, 1989; E.N. Knyazeva, 1992; T.P. Grigorieva, 2002).
1.4. Creativity of Nature
Unfolding of Prakriti (Nature’s creative potential), through three gunas – principles of creation [sattva (lightness, wisdom), rajas (passion, impetus), tamas (inertia)] (“The Mahabharata”, “The Bhagavad Gita”, 6th-4th c. BC); Entelechy as the inner active principle and tendency to formation (Aristotle, 4th. BC); Creativity of genius, as a manifestation of the innate mental disposition (ingenium) through which Nature gives the rule to Art (I. Kant, 1790); Manifestation of an Universal Will (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Creativity as the essence of nature and life (L. Feuerbach, 1843); Evolutionary Love (Ch. Peirce, 1893); Self-development and self-revelation of the world as a hierarchy of personalities (W. Stern, 1906-1924); Creative Evolution (A. Bergson, 1907); Creativity as a continuation of the living nature evolution (A. Lezin, 1907; P. K. Engelmeyer, 1910), Creativity of animate and inanimate Nature (M. Bloch, 1920), Emergent Evolution (S. Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, 1923); Creativity as a reconstruction of the birth process (Otto Rank, 1924); Realization of Creative Cosmic Force (A. Whitehead,1929); Manifestation of the Vital Force (George Coghill, 1929; Herbert Read, 1943; S. Buhler, 1951; E. Sinnott, 1955, 1957; Th. Dobzhansky, 1954, 1974); Highest manifestation of the principle of Self-duplication (H. Gutman,1961); Creativity as quality of protoplasm and the primary, fundamental quality of life (Harold H. Anderson, 1960); Creativity as a Life Force (d’Arsy Hayman, 1960; G. Kneller (1965); The model of the creative generative grammar (N. Chomsky, 1955, 1967); Creativity as an accretive, replicative mutual growtn (George T.L. Land, 1974); Creativity as a productive form of development (Y.A. Ponomarev, 1976); Creativity as a special form of development (D. Feldman, H. Gruber, 1982, 1986); Recursive deployment of the base system (A.V. Anisimov,1988); Creativity as a form of evolution (H. Bloom, 1995, 2010; L. Gabora, 1997; K. Urban, 2003); Creativity as a global, universal evolution (E. Jantsch, 1980; F. Capra, 1989; N.N. Moiseev, 1989, H. Morowitz, 2002, T. Lombardo, 2011); Creative processes theory based on evolutionary mega synthesis (A.G.Yushchenko, 2008).
Creativity as generation and selection of combinations. Producing random images through spontaneous variation, which the outer environment selects (W. James, 1890); Generation of random combinations or ideas and their creative choice (H. Poincare,1913); Production of random combinations of possible solutions to a problem and their critical evaluation (J.Hadamard ,1954); Blind variation and selective retention: variation, selection and retention (D.T. Campbell, 1960); Generation of alternatives, selection, retention (D.N. Perkins, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1988); Chance permutation, formation configurations, social acceptance (D.Simonton, 1988).
1.5. Creative Vision of the World
A Spiritual Vision (Darshan) as an intuitive enlightenment and rational understanding of reality (Hinduism, 15th.c. BC); Contemplation (refined thought) as the fullness of the mind and visualization (Cun Xiang) (Daozizm, 6th c. BC); Penetrating vision (vipassana) and enlightenment (Buddhism, 6th. c. BC); Contemplation of ideas, entities, and beauty (Plato, 5th-4th c. BC); The highest value of the metaphysical, “disinterested contemplation” as the beginning of the knowledge (Aristotle, 4 th. c. BC);The spiritual vision (Plotinus, 3th. AD); Intuitive, inner, superconscious contemplation of essences (Augustine, 4th -5th c.); Transcendental mystical vision of the truth (al-Ghazali, 11th.-12th. c., Ibn ‘Arabi, 12th -13th c. ); Achievement of satori and the acquisition of a new vision (Zen Buddhism, 12th c.); Aesthetic , productive contemplation (F.Shelling, 1800), Creativity as the contemplation of pure essences (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Eidetic intuition and constitution of meaning (E. Husserl, 1913); Transcendental, intuitive vision of the entities and the identification of consciousness with the world (N.O.Lossky, 1908; N.A. Berdyaev, 1916; S.L. Frank, 1917); Person’s Vision as a source of creativity and creation of the worlds of culture (G. Simmel, 1911,1918); Transition from action to the vision, the unity of the transcendental and phenomenological vision from the standpoint of absolute emptiness “Basho” (Nishida Kitaro, 1927); The aesthetic attitude and perception of the world (A.A.Melik-Pashayev, 1990); Creative vision as the unity of creative stand (meta-attitude), higher state of consciousness and method. (S.L. Markov, 1997, 2011).
Creative perception. Perceiving of the world in an unhabitual way (W. James, 1890); A special sensitivity to the aesthetic beauty and harmony (H. Poincaré, 1908); Creativity as an ability to regard the old problems from a new angle (A. Einstein, L. Infeld, 1938 ); Sensitivity to problems (J. Guilford, 1950); Creative visual perception, the unity of perception and thought (R. Arnheim, 1954.1969); Fusion of perceptions which is carried out in a new way (Peter McKellar, 1957), Creativity as the perception of complexity and uncertainty (F. Barron, 1958); Creativity as an allocentric perception and completely absorbing in the object Ernest G.Schachtel (1959); The ability to see the familiar as a strange and the strange as a familiar (W. Gordon, 1961); Process of sensing gaps or disturbing missing elements (E.Torrance,1962); Creativity as b-cognition which involves experiencing the object as a whole A. Maslow (1962); The Creative Vision as a longitudinal study of Problem Finding (W. Getzels, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1976); Creative perception (K.J. Goodman, D.I. Marquard,1978); Perception, creating images as a component of visual thinking and creativity (R.H. McKim, 1980); Processes of visual code manipulation and cross-modal transformations (J. Guilford, 1981, 1983); Perception as the primal and basic process of creative activity (Richard L. Gregory, 1970, 1987); Creativity as the perception of art ( Antony J. Chapman, 1984); Intentional variation of point of views toward the object (Edward de Bono, 1985); A Configural Conception of Creativity (John H. Flowers, Calvin P. Garbin, 1989); Creativity as mindfulness, openness to experience and flexibility (Ellen J. Langer, 1989, 2000); The creative perception (L. Friedel, 1992); Creative perception, cognition and dynamic representation (Steven M. Smith, Thomas B. Ward, Ronald A. Finke, 1992, Beverly Roskos-Ewoldsen, 1993); Creativity as the Playful Perception (Herbert L. Leff, 1994); Creativity, perception Imagination: Representation and Transformation in Mental Imagery (Daniel Reisberg, Robert H. Logie, Geir Kaufmann, Maria A. Brandimonte, 1996).
Creativity as Synesthesia and Cross-Modal representations. Creativity and syncretic perception (L. Marks,1978; E. Lawrence, 1982; Audrey Dailey, Colin Martindale, Jonathan Borkum,1998); Creativity as Synaesthesia (G. Domino 1989); Synesthesia and physiognomic perception (A. Dailey, C. Martindale, J. Borkum 1997).
Imagery, imagination and visualization. Visual imagery and the manipulation of visual codes (R.N. Shepard, 1978, 1981); Transformation of verbal problems in visual images (J.L. Adams, 1979); Creative Visualization (S. Gawain , 1982); Creative perception and percept-genesis (S. Smitt, 1990, van den Meer, 1994); The imagery-creativity (S. Daniels-McGhee, G. A. Davis, 1994); Perception, Imagery, Perceptual Symbol Systems (R.A. Finke 1990; T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith, 1992, 1995); Perceptual activity, imagination and creativity (Nigel J. T. Thomas, 1999, 2002); Creativity as visualization, deautomatizationand and synesthetic process (G.Cupchic,1999); Visualization and creative problem-solving (R. Arp, 2005); A Computer Model of Creativity Based on Perceptual Activity Theory (P.J. Blain, 2006).
Analogical perception. Synesthetic perception and poetic methaphor (L. Marks, 1982); Analogy as high level perception (D.J. Chalmers, R.M. French, D. R. Hofstadter, 1992, M. Mitchell, 1993, C. T. Morrison, E Dietrich, 1995, K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, A. B. Markman, R. W. Ferguson, 1998, D. Hofstadter, 2001).
Creative attention. Creativity as defocused attention and breadth of attention (G. Mendelsohn, 1976; J. Kasof 1997; K. Urban, 2003); The concentration of information and spreading throughout the semantic networks (C. Martindale 1995); The process of focusing, defocusing of attention (P.A. Howard-Jones, S. Murray, 2003); include selective encoding, selective comparison and selective combination (T.Lubart, 2003); The focus of attention as a factor of creativity (R.S. Friedman, 2003; L.Y. Dorfman, VA Gasimova, 2006; O. M. Razumnikova, 2008); Creativity as variability and flexibility of attention (O. Vartanian, 2009).