Mikhail Lomonosov – Founder of Russian science

0
5
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov
(19 November, 1711, Denisovka, Arkhangelsk Governorate , Russia – 15 April,1765, St. Petersburg, Russia) (aged 53)
Nationality: Russia
Category: Scientists
Occupation: Poets, Mathematics, Physics
Unique distinction: The founder of Russian science, creator of the basis of the modern Russian literary language, the father of Russian poetry. Polymath.
Gender: Male

Quotes: 1. Geometry is the rules of all mental investigation. 2. Mathematics should be studied if only for that it puts the mind in order. 3. Nature is in some sense, the Gospel and preach loudly creative power, wisdom and greatness of God. And not only heaven, but bowels of the earth declare the glory of God. 4. Carolus V, Emperor of Rome, was wont to say that the Hispanic tongue was seemly for converse with God, the French with friends, the German with enemies, the Italian with the feminine sex. Had he been skilled in (the knowledge of) Russian, he would doubtless have added that in the last named it behooves one to speak to all the above.

Achievements:


Social and professional position: Russian chemist, physicists, mathematic, writer and poet
The main contribution to (what is known): He was the founder of Russian science, founded laboratories based on western scientific traditions and made significant contributions to the philological study of the Russian language.
Contributions: Mikhail Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.
He was the founder of Russian science, making many discoveries and founding laboratories based on western scientific traditions.
Scince.
His chemical and physical work was characterized by its emphasis on the use of atomic and molecular modes of explanation. He published views opposing the phlogiston theory, and suggested the Law of Conservation of Mass. In his experiments he anticipated such modern principles as the mechanical nature of heat and the kinetic theory of gases. In 1748, Lomonosov founded the first scientific chemical laboratory in Russia.
Lomonosov’s other scientific interests were electricity, light, optical devices, mineralogy, meteorology, and astronomy.
Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus and the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reactions.
Literature.
Lomonosov was also a writer and poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.
He made significant contributions to the philological study of the Russian language, including the development of a scientific vocabulary, and wrote a controversial History of Russia.
He later wrote a Russian grammar and adopted tonic versification, thus altering the character of Russian prosody. For his reform of the Russian literary language he chose an idiom midway between the Old Church Slavonic and spoken Russian.
In 1748 he wrote the “rhetoric”, which became the first Russian anthologies of world literature.
Art of mosaics.
Lomonosov restored the ancient art of mosaics. In 1753 he founded in Ust-Rudnica the first mosaic factory producing colored glass and beads in Russia. He created some mosaics and outstanding pieces of art, the best is the portrait of Peter the Great and the Battle of Poltava, measuring 4.8 x 6.4 meters. producing some.
He also reorganized the academy of Science and  created the system of higher education in Russia.
In 1755 he founded the Moscow University, in 1940 the university was renamed the Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Major works: Ode on the Taking of Khotin (1739), Rhetoric (1748), Letter about on the usefullness of glass (1752), Russian grammar”  (1755),  Russian language” (1757), “Reflexion on the solidity and fluidity of bodies”, 1760). History of Russia (1766), Conversation with Anakreon” (1759 – 61), “The Hymn to Beard” (1757).

Life:


Origin: Lomonosov was born in the village of Denisovka situated on an island not far from Kholmogori, in the Far North of Russia. His father, Vasily Lomonosov, was a prosperous peasant fisherman and mother was Vasily’s first wife, a deacon’s daughter, Elena Sivkova.
Education: He studied at Slavic Greek Latin Academy, at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and abroud at the University of Marburg (1736-1739) and in Freibergaat the School of Mining (1739-1741).
Influenced by: Christian Wolff
Career highlights:  In 1741 he returned from Germany to Russia and received a lifetime appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences.  In 1761, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1764 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the Bologna Institute.
He was made professor of chemistry in the University of St. Petersburg; he ultimately became rector, and in 1764 secretary of state.
Personal life: When he was ten years of age his father took the boy to assist his father in calling. But young Lomonosov understood that learning is passion and the eagerness for knowledge is unbounded.
In 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov travelled on foot from the Far North of Russia to Moscow. He obtained admission into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy by falsely claiming to be a priest’s son. There in spite of being mocked by other much younger students, obtained an extraordinarily broad education.  During study at Moscow Lomonosov lived on three kopecks a day, eating only black bread and kvas, but he made rapid progress scholastically.
He completed a twelve-year study course in only five years, graduating at the top of his class. After three years in Moscow he was sent to Kiev to study for one year at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
In 1736, Lomonosov was awarded a scholarship to Saint Petersburg State University. He plunged into his studies and was rewarded with a grant to study abroad, in Germany.
There he studied at the University of Marburg (1736-1739) and in Freibergaat the School of Mining (1739-1741). At the University of Marburg Lomonosov became personal students of Wolff – a prominent figure of the German Enlightenment.
In 1739 in Marburg, he married the daughter of his landlady Elizabeth Christine Zilch.
According to some sources, on the road from Marburg he was forcibly recruited in the Prussian soldiers, but escaped from the fortress Veseli.
Although Lomonosov was a man of immense talent, his creative energies were somewhat thwarted by his domineering nature and peevish disposition.
He died in Saint Petersburg
Remains: Buried, Alexander Nevsky Monastery, St. Petersburg, Russia.