- The Best Creativity Techniques
- Classical Brainstorming
- Morphological analysis
- Free Association – creative technique
- Analogy technique as a tool for creative problem solving
- Method of focal objects
- The Kipling method (5W1H)
- How to solve a problem – checklist by G. Polya
- Five Why – interrogative technique
- SCAMPER – Creative technique for ideation
- The Phoenix checklist – Creative Thinking Technique
- Lateral thinking technique – effective tool for creative problem solving
- Mind Mapping for creativity and innovation
- The Six Thinking Hats as a tool for creativity and innovation
- Wishful Thinking – creativity technique for breakthrough innovation
- Reversal (Inversion) as a creative problem solving technique
- TRIZ – method of enhancing creativity and generating breakthrough innovations
- 40 Inventive Principles in classical and modern TRIZ
- “What if?” – A powerful creativity and possibility thinking technique
- Lotus Blossom Technique
- Role Playing as a Creative Problem Solving Technique
- Freewriting – Subconscious creative technique
- C. Jung’s “16 associations” test as a problem solving method
- Dream Journaling as a technique for finding creative solutions
- Metaphor technique for creative problem solving
TRIZ – Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
Etymology and abbreviations
TRIZ is the Russian acronym for the “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving” (literally: “theory of the resolution of invention-related tasks”), the English acronym TIPS. ARIZ (Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving), (ТRТS-rus) (TTSE, Theory of Technical System Evolution.), ТRТL (TCPD, Theory of Creative Personality Development)
Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (the pen-name Genrikh Altov; 15 October 1926, Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, USSR – 24 September 1998, Petrozavodsk, Russia) was a Soviet engineer, inventor, independent scientist and science-fiction author.
He was the author of the main concepts and tools of TRIZ: Technical contradiction (TС), Ideal final result (IFR), Substance-field analysis, Laws of technical system evolution and ARIZ, which he supplemented and improved for about 50 years.
The author of the Theory of Talented (Powerful)) thinking and the development of a creative personality, the creator of the “Register of sci-fi ideas and situations”, the author of science fiction stories.
He was the founder of TRIZ training centers, and was the first President of the International TRIZ Association and the author of numerous works on TRIZ, which were published in the USA, China, Japan and many European countries.
Raphail Borisovich Shapiro (the pen-name Rafail Bakhtamov; 1926-1993), co-founder of TRIZ, inventor, writer, ideologist and popularizer of TRIZ, developer of the TRIZ strategy and the conception of the objective Laws of System Evolution.
In 1946, G. Altshuller and R. Shapiro started developing a new systematic innovation methodology (TRIZ) in Baku, Azerbaijan (formerly the USSR). Altshuller and his colleagues set the task of creating systematic and algorithmic innovation methodology for developing creative solutions.
TRIZ (the term was introduced later in 1970) has been developed based on an in-depth study of the best inventions and fundamental concept: “The evolution of all technical systems is governed by objective laws”.
During this period, he discovered a systematic nature of technology evolution and defined a key role of overcoming technical contradictions in order to come up with inventive solutions.
In 1956, G. Altshuller and R. Shapiro published the paper titled “On the psychology of inventive creation” in Issues in Psychology (No. 6, 37-49) journal.
In this paper where introduced concepts such as technical contradiction, ideality, inventive system thinking (currently known as “System Operator” or “Multi-Screen Diagram of Thinking”), the Law of Technical System Completeness, and the first five Inventive Principles.
The paper presented the first algorithm to support a process of solving inventive problems – ARIZ–1956. The first version ARIZ-56 was subsequently improved and supplemented: ARIZ-59, ARIZ-61, ARIZ-64, ARIZ-65, ARIZ-68, ARIZ-71, ARIZ – 75, ARIZ-77, ARIZ-82 (A, B, C, D), ARIZ-85-A, ARIZ-85-B, ARIZ-85-B.
New versions and modifications of ARIZ were introduced: ARIP-2009 by G. Ivanov, ARIZ 2010, version by Vladimir Petrov, ARIZ-Universal-2014 by M. Rubin.
In 1961, was published Altshuller´s first book on TRIZ: How to learn to invent.
In 1963, Altshuller presented the first system of the Laws of Technical Systems Evolution and in 1964 the first version of the Matrix for Resolving Technical Contradictions with generalized technical parameters (16×16 parameters) was developed. In 1965 he proposed the techniques of Creative Imagination Development.
In 1969 Altshuller established AZOIIT (Azerbajdzhan Public Institute for Inventive Creativity) which became the first TRIZ training and development centre in the USSR.
By 1969, Altshuller reviewed 200,000 patents, which were narrowed down to 40,000
innovative patents. Genrich Altshuller analyzed thousands of worldwide patents from the leading engineering fields. He then analyzed solutions that were, in his judgment, most effective.
In an effort to accelerate as well as improve the invention process, Altshuller collected, classified, and catalogued patents across industries and sciences, looking for patterns of invention or configurations of invention types.
Years of research conducted by thousands of engineers to reach innovative solutions for repeated problems should be considered as one of the essential tools to solve problems.
In 1971, in ARIZ-71 he introduced Operator “Time-Size-Cost”, the first version of the Method of Little Men, and included references to physical effects for solving inventive problems.
In ARIZ-71 and finally in the book of G.S. Altshuller’s “Algorithm of Invention” (1973) was proposed a list of 40 Inventive Principles for solving technical contradictions.
In 1974 a School of TRIZ was established in Leningrad (currently St. Petersburg) by V. Mitrofanov, which was probably the most influential training and developing TRIZ centre in the former USSR.
In 1975, a new approach for solving inventive problems was introduced: Substance-Field Modeling (also known as Su-field Modeling) and the first 5 Inventive Standards (which were later extended to 76 Inventive Standards that were published by Altshuller).
In 1979, G.S. Altshuller published the book “Creativity as an Exact Science”, which
defined a Theory of Technical Systems Evolution and proposed the “Laws of Technical Systems Evolution”.
In 1985 A group of TRIZ experts including B. Zlotin, S. Litvin and V. Gerasimov developed the Function-Cost Analysis (FCA) technique for analyzing technical systems and products based on the assessment of functional interactions in technical systems.
In 1986, in his book “To Find an Idea: Introduction to the Theory of Inventive Problems”, G. S. Altshuller proposed an improved version of the TRIZ, as well as new tools and algorithms of Inventive Problem Solving, in particular, ARIZ-85-B and, in addition, 76 inventive standards. ARIZ-85C is. ARIZ-85C is considered a powerful tool sufficient for solving different inventive problems and as the only officially recognized version of ARIZ.
From 1986 Altshuller switched his attention away from technical TRIZ to studying creative personality and the development of individual creativity. He also developed a version of TRIZ for children, which was trialled in various schools and preschools.
In 1989, several of Altshuller’s practitioners moved to the West to continue research and set up consultancy practices. In 1989 the TRIZ Association was formed, with Altshuller chosen as President.
The first TRIZ software “Invention Machine™” was released by Invention Machine Labs (later evolved to “TechOptimizer™” and “Goldfire Innovator™” by Invention Machine Corp. – now owned by HIS
A Database of Technological Effects was presented which connected technical functions with specific technologies.
In 1994, G.S. Altshuller and I.M. Vertkin published the book “How to Become a Genius: Life Strategy of a Creative Person”, in which, on the basis of an analysis of the more than 1000 famous people biographies, the foundations of ТRТL (TCPD, Theory of Creative Personality Development) were laid.
In 1995-1997, such companies as Ford, Caterpillar, Proctor and Gamble, IBM, and Motorola began to use the TRIZ system.
In 1996, the Online TRIZ Journal was launched by Ellen Domb which publishes papers on a monthly basis and is freely available to the public.
In 1998, the International TRIZ Association (MATRIZ – the abbreviation uses Latin letters corresponding to the Russian ones) was established. Headquartered in St. Petersburg. G.S. Altshuller performs the functions of the President of the TRIZ Association and MA TRIZ simultaneously.
Altshuller prepared a list of “TRIZ Masters” which included 65 names of persons whom he granted this title for their significant contribution to the development of TRIZ.
In the same year, the Altshuller Institute for TRIZ Studies (USA) was established.
In 2000, the European TRIZ Association – ETRIA (European TRIZ Association) was established.
In 2002, Darrell Mann published the book “Hands-on Systematic Innovation for Business and Management” which becomes the first book on exposing how TRIZ and some its tools can be used in business and management
By 2015, over 80 TRIZ associations and societies became members of MATRIZ, including both regional/national associations and TRIZ communities established at multinational companies such as Siemens TRIZ Association, Samsung Display TRIZ Association
In September 2019, the “International Council of TRIZ Masters” was established.
There are 3 stages of TRIZ evolution
1. Classical TRIZ (1946–1985). During this period, the conceptual foundation of TRIZ was formulated, and many methods and tools were developed, by G.S. Altshuller and his students. (Baku, Azerbaijan; Petrozavodsk, Russia)
2. Kishinev period (1981–1992). Since 1981, B.L. Zlotin A.V. Zusman, V.N. Prosyanik, A.V. Vishnepolskaya and others continued to improve ARIZ, developed applied and pedagogical aspects of the theory. In 1986, the scientific and technical centre “Progress” in Chisinau was established.
3. Ideation period (1992–present) TRIZ Distribution in the world.
4 stages of TRIZ distribution in the World (Valeri Souchkov, 2016)
1. Distribution of Software Products
In 1991 Invention Machine Corporation (now “IHS Goldfire ™”) was founded by a company called Invention Machines Lab from Minsk, Belarus, (Nikolai Khomenko, and Valery Tsourikov). In 1993, the headquarters of Invention Machine Lab moved to Boston, Massachusetts, the USA.
In 1992 Consulting company Ideation International (entrepreneur Zion Bar-Tel, founders Boris Zlotin and Alla Zusman) was founded in the USA. The company released its own framework called Ideation/TRIZ (I-TRIZ) and software to support it called TRIZSoft™ that included problem-solving system Innovation Workbench™, forecasting system Directed Evolution™,
Some TRIZ Masters such as Victor Fey, Isaak Bukhman, Gregory Ezersky, and others arrived in the USA and founded their own companies to offer TRIZ-based training and consulting services.
2. Interest in Academic Environment
West academic organizations and universities became interested in learning more about TRIZ. Among them, there was the University of Twente (The Netherlands), the Technical University of Strasbourg (France), Ecole Polytechnique of Paris (France), Wayne State University (USA), MIT – Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (Sweden), Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic), Technical Universities of Bergamo and Florence (Italy), Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia), and other.
3. Interest of Professional Community, Foundation of Companies, Offering TRIZ Services
The next stage of TRIZ expansion was related to growing interest in TRIZ among consultants and professionals who dealt with the issues of improving the quality of engineering products and processes. Several global corporations such as Samsung, POSCO, General Electric have implemented TRIZ in their quality management processes built on the basis of Six Sigma and Lean methods.
The common strategy of those companies was ordinary: to simplify TRIZ as much as possible. Thus, consultants offered simplified TRIZ versions: SIT, ASIT, CreaTRIZ, USIT, DreamTRIZ, GEN3 and so on.
In the same period of time, the number of TRIZ publications began to grow rapidly, especially publications of books in English and other languages.
4. Development of TRIZ Networks and Associations
In 1998, the non-profit Altshuller Institute was established in the USA. In 2000, the European TRIZ Association ETRIA was established. Since then, national associations began to emerge almost everywhere: France, Germany, Austria, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, Korea, India, Mexico, Malaysia, and Poland.
In addition to regional associations, corporate TRIZ associations were established, for example at General Electric, Intel, Philips, POSCO, Siemens, and Samsung. Some of those associations have become and still remain members of the International TRIZ Association (MATRIZ).
TRIZ Associations which are successfully working all over the world
TRIZ International Association (MATRIZ), President Oleg Feygenson (Russia).
European TRIZ Association (ETRIA – European TRIZ Association), President Sebastian Koziolek (Poland).
TRIZ Regional Associations in various countries.
International TRIZ Business Association (IBTA), President Valeri Souchkov (Netherlands)
TRIZ Developers Summit.
International Council of TRIZ Masters, President M.S. Rubin (Russia).
The Altshuller Institute (USA), President H. James Harrington (USA).
Modern versions of TRIZ
Currently, different organizations and authors developed new products, sets of TRIZ tools and their own versions of TRIZ
• “Directed Evolution” (System of Directed Evolution), TRIZ Idea Method (I-TRIZ), IdeationTRIZ (I-TRIZ), B. L. Zlotin and A. V. Zusman (USA).
• GEN TRIZ, a provider of technical innovative solutions, does not offer ideas as the end result of their work, but a working prototype of the most potentially successful solution found, S. S. Litvin (USA).
• xTRIZ, System Innovation Thinking Technology (TSIM), Valeri Souchkov (Netherlands).
Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT), Ginadi Filkovsky (Israel)
Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking (ASIT), Roni Horowitz (Israel)
Unified Structured Inventive Thinking (USIT), Ed. Sickafus (USA).
• Modern TRIZ, M.A. Orlov (Germany).
• TRIZ Plus – a modern tool for improving design innovations, Douglas Hoon (USA).
Contradiction Matrix for IT/Software innovation, Darrell Mann (United Kindom).
• Technology of Effective Solutions (TES), A.V. Podkatilin (Russia)
• Target Invention Problem Solving. Algorithm of improving problem situations (AIPS), N.A. Shpakovsky (Russia).
• Algorithm for solving engineering problems (ASEP), G. I. Ivanov (Russia).
• Technovatika, Eduard Kurgi (Russia).
• Theory of artificial systems evolution S. V. Kukalev.
• General Theory of Strong Thinking (OTSM-TRIZ), N.N. Khomenko. (France), which introduced principles and techniques to develop systematic skills of domain-independent “powerful” creative thinking for kids and adults.
• Children’s Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (CAIPS), E.L. Pchelkina (Russia).
Today, public officials, politicians, businessmen, and managers use the services of TRIZ specialists
Application of TRIZ
According to 2016 data, TRIZ is used in approximately fifty foreign countries. There are several thousand companies around the world in which TRIZ has been or is being applied.
Today TRIZ is actively used to create and implement innovations in such leading world corporations as Boeing, Airbus, Lockheed Martin, European Space Agency, General Electric, Intel, POSCO, Procter & Gamble, Hewlett Packard, Xerox, Johnson & Johnson, Exxon Mobile, Mars, Medtronic, Shell, Unilever, Philips, Siemens, Motorola, Renault, SAAB, Peugeot-Citroen, BMW, Daimler Chrysler, Ford Motor, Hyundai, LG, and Toyota. Samsung Electronics has been so far the biggest TRIZ user in the world. Some other Korean companies began to implement TRIZ as well. Among such companies, we can name Hyundai, POSCO, LG Group.
TRIZ and education
Introductory or extended TRIZ courses are introduced by over 100 universities globally. An official 82-hour course (with a 54-hour extension) for B.Sc and M.Sc is launched at Twente University in 2009 in the Netherlands.
Internal TRIZ training
A number of global corporations introduced internal TRIZ training and certification systems. Among the most famous companies that trained hundreds and thousands of their employees, there are Boeing, European Space Agency, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Hyundai, Intel Corp., LG, Procter and Gamble, Siemens.
The Association of German Engineers (VDI) launched the preparation of an industry standard to cover TRIZ: VDI Guideline 4521. The International TRIZ Association (MATRIZ) establishes the International TRIZ University
The information-advising system “Inventing Machine” (IMLab, IMCorp) was created. Currently, new and innovative intellectual systems of creative support (ISTP) exist and are being created, among which are “TRIZ-technology” (forecaster, search engine, designer), “TRIZ-security” (ecologist, detective, lifeguard), “Business-TRIZ”, TRIZ-man, etc.
Computer programs based on TRIZ have been developed that provide intellectual assistance to engineers and inventors in solving technical problems, such as “Discovery Machine”, “Debut”, “IM-Teacher”.
Several computer programs based on TRIZ have been developed, the purpose of which is to assist engineers and inventors in search of inventive solutions to technological problems: IHS Goldfire ™, TRIZSoft ™, EASyTRIZ ™, TRIZ Explorer ™, CreaTRIZ ™, TRIZCON2019, etc.
TRIZ is represented by a large number of high-quality websites on the Internet:
TRIZ Internet resources
TRIZ is the most comprehensive systematic innovation and creativity methodology algorithmic approach to problem-solving, which has much exceeded the level of “know-how to invent”.
It is a problem-solving methodology that is based on a systematic logic approach, which is derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature and the understanding of the trends, or patterns, of evolution for technical systems.
TRIZ can be used as a powerful method for creative problem solving, with such new authoring concepts and powerful tools as Ideal Final Result, Contradiction Matrix, Physical Contradictions and Separation Principles, SuField analysis, 40 Inventive Principles, Trends of Evolution and 76 Standard Solutions.
The TRIZ provides experts and researchers with a quick, reliable and efficient tool for problem-solving and achieving breakthrough innovation.
4. Main functions
1. TRIZ can help to create and to improve products, services, and systems or businesses. It is an efficient tool for the solution of innovative problems, the creation and implementation of breakthrough innovations, the improvement and development of new products.
2. This is the method of technology prediction for developing new products. It is suitable for forecasting complex systems and products evolution, selection of promising areas for the development of technology and obtaining fundamentally new breakthrough solutions.
3. This method can be used in different fields including engineering, project management, social relationships, education and solution to scientific and research problems. It is designed for solving inventive problems of any complexity in all spheres of human activity.
In addition, the method functions are:
4. Improvement of any complex, social, economic, socio-psychological and, above all, technical systems.
5. Search and solution of organizational and managerial problems in management and in the management of business processes.
6. Generating non-trivial ideas, identifying and solving creative problems in any area of life
7. Help in creating stories in science fiction genre works.
8. Formation of creative, powerful “triz’s” thinking, development of creative imagination and fantasy.
9. Awakening and activation of creativity, increasing the creative potential of managers and developers of new technology.
You need to break psychological inertia and brainstorming does not result in any breakthrough solutions.
5. The essence of the method
In contrast to the common «trial and error» problem, solving methods such as brainstorming, synectics, morphological analysis etc., TRIZ only relies on the unbiased laws of evolution of technical systems and therefore enables a focused search for possible solutions. The discovery and structuring of these laws, as well as other TRIZ components, has been the result of the study and analysis of globally available patents over a period of several decades.
1. The TRIZ method is an effective technology for practical problem solving, based on knowledge of objective laws evolution of all technical systems and the accumulated experience of inventive creativity, by resolving the key contradictions of the system, with a focus on the ideal final result and using standard techniques, Inventive Principles, as well as internal and external resources.
2. TRIZ is a special worldview, a universal creative methodology, a constructive approach to solving various life problems, a creative paradigm and style of thinking, a holistic system of techniques, principles and algorithms for purposefully controlling the process of solving different problems of any level of novelty and complexity.
3. The unique difference and exceptional feature of TRIZ are that the core tools and techniques are developed on the basis of trends and laws governing the evolution of technical systems as well as the study of more than 200,000 patents and the generalization of the experience of successfully solving about 40 thousand inventive problems, which avoids the generation of many useless ideas and immediately put forward strong solutions.
4. Patents. One of the most fundamental concepts introduced by TRIZ is that new inventive problems can be solved on the basis of experiences accumulated in the course of making earlier inventions in various other areas. G. Altshuller investigated thousands of real inventions and developed the following principles governing the resolution of inventive problems
5. Logics. The TRIZ methodology relies on a knowledge base of such invention models. It applies them in order to unlock or find problem solutions logically rather than intuitively through creative inspiration or randomly with a brainstorming process.
The constituent components of the method:
1. The theory of Evolution of Technical Systems (TRTS). Laws of Technical Evolution and Technology Forecasting and Trends of Evolution of Technical Systems.
2. An information database representing accumulated problem-solving experience:
2.1. System of standards for solving inventive problems (Standard Solutions of a certain class of problems); 76 Standard Inventive Solutions.
2.3. Database of technological effects (physical, chemical, biological, etc.).
2.4. Principles for Eliminating Contradictions.
2.4.1. Principles for eliminating technical contradictions. 40 Innovation Principles, a system of their application in form of the Contradictions Matrix.
2.4.2. Separation principles for eliminating physical contradictions.
2.5. Methods for analyzing system resources. (Resources of nature and technology and methods of their use).
3. Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving – ARIZ. Step-by-step techniques for inventive problem-solving.
4. Methods of system analysis and synthesis.
5. Substance-field analysis of technical systems.
6. Creative Imagination Development (CID) and Methods to increase creative thinking, to reduce psychological inertia
6.1. PBC operator (size, time, content); operator DTC (dimensions-time-cost), simulation
6.2. Modeling method “Little People”.
7. Theory of Creative Personality and creative teams Development. Life strategy for creative individuals
TRIZ is one of the most powerful and effective practical methodologies used for
creating new ideas. Currently, TRIZ tools are used in more than 5000 companies and government organizations across the world.
TRIZ super task
The TRIZ supertask is to form, on the basis of Trends of Evolution of Complex Systems and Universal Patterns of Creativity, a new creative worldview, special Triz thinking, habit of seeing the world in all its integrity and interconnections, the vision that focuses on key contradictions and ideal solutions.
Successful methods and techniques, as you use them, are coagulated, automated, sink into the subconscious level and spontaneously manifest themselves in solving any vital problems.
At the same time, the idea of the unity of the laws of evolution of technical, political-economic, biological, social and socio-psychological systems is Further development of TRIZ is based on the idea of the unity of the laws of evolution of technical, political, economic, biological, social and socio-psychological systems.
In addition, attempts are being made to Integrate TRIZ with Other Problem-Solving Tools and apply this combined method across a number of widely disparate problem types.
6. Methodological and theoretical grounds
Fundamental postulates of TRIZ
1. The evolution of all technical systems is governed by objective laws that can be identified and used to create methods and algorithms for solving inventive problems, as well as for the conscious development and improvement of technical systems. Based on discovered patterns of evolution, universal methods for searching for new ideas can be developed.
2. The evolution of technical systems is carried out through the emergence and elimination of technical contradictions between parts of the system, or between the system and the external environment.
3. The evolution of all systems goes in the direction of increasing the degree of ideality, that is, the weight, volume and other characteristics of the systems tend to zero, and the function of the system is preserved.
Improvement of any part of a system that has already reached the highest level of functional performance will lead to conflict with another part. This will lead to the eventual improvement of the less evolved part. Such a continuing and self-sustaining process will bring the system closer to its ideal state.
These laws reveal that, during the evolution of a technical system, improvement of any part of that system that has already reached its pinnacle of functional performance will lead to conflict with another part. This conflict will lead to the eventual improvement of the less evolved part. This continuing, self-sustaining process pushes the system ever closer to its ideal state. Understanding this evolutionary process allows us to forecast future trends in the development of a technical system.
The definition and resolution of a number of interconnected dialectical contradictions and the construction of an ideal final result is the essence and the main way of creative activity, solving problems and solving inventive problems.
1. The principle of objectivity of the laws of systems evolution – the structure, functioning and change of generations of systems are subject to objective laws. There are universal principles of creativity or patterns of invention, it follows that all solutions have been discovered.
Hence: strong decisions are decisions that correspond to objective laws, phenomena, effects.
2. The principle of contradiction – under the influence of external and internal factors, contradictions arise, aggravate and resolve. The problem is difficult because there is a system of contradictions – hidden or overt.
Systems evolve, overcoming contradictions on the basis of objective laws, phenomena and effects.
Hence: strong decisions are solutions that overcome contradictions.
3. The principle of concreteness – each class of systems, as well as individual representatives within this class, has features that facilitate or complicate the change of a particular system.
These features are determined by resources: internal – those on which the system is built, and external – the environment and situation in which the system is located.
Hence: strong solutions are solutions that take into account the specifics of concrete problem situations.
Laws of technical systems evolution
The strategy and tactics of directed problem resolution must rely on laws governing the evolution of technical systems.
In his book “Creativity as an exact science” (1979) G.S. Altshuller identified three groups of laws:
The Laws of Static, which define conditions for a technical system emergence, composition and viability.
The Laws of Kinematic, which are observed independently from specific technological
and physical factors which produce an impact on the evolution of a technical system.
The Laws of Dynamic imply that the evolution of every technical system depends
on specific technological and physical factors which produce an impact on the evolution of a
Static describes criteria of composition and viability of newly created technical systems
1. The law of the completeness of the parts of the system
Any working system must have at least four parts (sub-systems): the engine, the transmission, the working unit and the control unit (organ of steering). The presence and minimal working behaviour of the main parts of the system is a prerequisite for the existence and fundamental viability of a technical system. If any component is missing, the technical system does not exist.
The corollary of Law 1:
For a system to be controlled, it is necessary that at least one part of it must be controllable.
2. The law of energy conductivity of the system
The energy should flow easily and circulate efficiently through the 4 main parts of the system. The transfer of energy through all parts of the system is a necessary condition for the fundamental viability of a technical system. it is necessary that
The corollary of Law 2:
For a part of the technical system to be controllable, it is necessary to ensure energy conductivity between this part and the control unit.
3. The law of harmonizing the rhythms of parts of the system
The frequencies of vibration or the periodicity of parts and movements of the system should be in synchronization with each other. For a technical system to work properly, the rhythms of its parts must be coordinated.
The coordination of rhythm of all parts of the system is a necessary condition for the fundamental viability of a technical system.
Kinematics – defines how technical systems evolve regardless of conditions.
4. Law of increasing the degree of the ideality of the system
A general direction of technology evolution is defined by the law of increasing the degree of the ideality of technical systems. The Ideal System must deliver an infinite number of functions, without producing negative effects and the required expenses do not exist. The ideal final result would have all the benefits at zero cost.
5. The law of uneven development of parts of a system
A technical system encompasses different parts, which will evolve differently, leading to new technical and physical contradictions.
The development of parts of the system is uneven: the more complicated the system, the more uneven the development of its parts.
6. The law of transition to the super-system
When a system exhausts the possibilities of further significant improvement, it’s included in a super-system as one of its parts. As a result, new development of the system at the level of the supersystem become possible.
Dynamics defines how technical systems evolve under specific conditions.
7. Law of transition from macro to micro-level
The development of working organs proceeds at first on a macro and then a micro level. The transition from macro to micro-level is one of the main tendencies of the development of modern technical systems.
8. The law of increasing the Su-Field involvement
The evolution of technical systems goes in the direction of increasing the degree of Su-Field involvement. Within the class of S-field systems, the fields evolve from mechanical fields to electromagnetic fields. The number of links in the Su-fields increases, and the responsiveness of the whole system tends to increase.
Subsequently, the “System of laws technical systems evolution” was supplemented and improved by such authors as V.M. Petrov, Yu. P. Salamatov, B.L. Zlotin, A.V. Zusman, V.M Guerassimov and S.S. Litvin, A.N. Zakharov, I.S. Zakharov, G.I Ivanov, M.I. Meerovich et al.
7. Basic Rules and Concepts
Technical systems evolve towards the increase of ideality by overcoming contradictions mostly with minimal introduction of resources.
TRIZ forces us to imagine the most ideal state of a system or product, and then to ask two questions:
1. What are the contradictions that must be resolved to reach that ideal end state?
2. What resources does our system or product have that could be used (that we have not seen or recognized) to achieve a more ideal final result.
The formula for victory over the problem
1. Ideal final result. Focus on the perfect and ideal result.
2. Contradiction. To identify the essential contradictions.
3. Use of resources. In order to move closer to the ideal, it is necessary to maximize the use of available resources.
1. The ideal final result (IFR)
IFR reflects the basic law of complex systems evolution – Law of increasing the degree of the ideality of the system. The Law of Ideality states that any technical system, throughout its lifetime, tends to become more reliable, simple, effective — more ideal.
The ideal final result is a dream, a fabulous solution to a problem, a guiding beacon, a standard to which you should strive.
This is initially a fantastic, but real situation, when the desired action is obtained without any costs, complications and undesirable effects.
An ideal technical system is a system that does not exist, while its functions are performed. “It is required to deliver such and such a function without introducing a new mechanism or device into the system.” The mechanism disappears, while the function is performed.
Moreover, the system itself, by finding internal and external resources, performs the desired action and at the same time does not allow undesirable effects.
An ideal substance – there is no substance, but its necessary functions, such as strength and impermeability, remain. The ideal substance does not exist, but its function is satisfied.
Ideal shape – provides maximum useful effect, for example, strength, with a minimum of material used. (For example – Sphere)
The ideal process is to get results without a process, that is, instantly. The ideal process does not expend energy and time but accomplishes the necessary effect (For example -Reducing time and getting rid of unnecessary functions and processes).
The ideal product is one that does not exist but nevertheless achieves the desired effect.
Ideality will increase if functionality increases. To achieve IFR, it is necessary to determine the main function of the system that sets the direction to the ideal solution or the main process that needs to be improved.
Three basic IFR formulations are commonly used:
1. “The system itself performs this function.” When formulating an RBI, it is desirable to use the word “Himself”.
2. “There is no system, and its functions are performed (using resources).”
3. “The function is not needed.”
The solution to any problem can be started from the end, by presenting the ideal image of the solution or the Ideal Final Result (IFR). After that, they “pave” the road to the beginning, eliminate unwanted effects, that is, solve the problem.
Ideality is reached by increasing the benefits of your system while simultaneously reducing both the disadvantages and cost.
Altshuller stated that the “art of inventing is the ability to remove barriers to Ideality in order to qualitatively improve a technical system”.
There are several ways to make the system more ideal:
1. Increase amount of functions of the system – make it multi-function
2. Transfer as many functions as possible to that working element that produces the system’s final action
3. Transfer some of the functions of the system to a supersystem or to the outside environment
4. Utilize internal and external resources that already exist and are available.
To make an image of an ideal solution first and to solve contradictions.
2. Identifying and resolving an essential contradiction
The fundamental TRIZ concept is that there are fundamental contradictions at the root of most problems.
In order to solve the problem, it needs to identify the contradiction and then solve it. The most effective solutions are achieved when an inventor solves a technical problem that contains a contradiction.
A contradiction occurs when two different parameters conflict with each other; so, it is important to identify where the conflict takes place.
1. Identification and elimination of systemic contradiction is the key to resolving the problem.
2. “There is an endless multitude of inventive problems, while the number of systemic contradiction types is relatively small. There are typical systemic contradictions – and typical techniques used for their elimination.”
Problem resolution techniques can be identified by analyzing great inventions.
2.1. In TRIZ there are three types of contradictions
1. Administrative contradiction, the essence of which is expressed in the phrase: “it is necessary to improve the system, but I don’t know how to do it”. It is the contradiction between the expressed need and the ability to satisfy it.
2. Technical contradiction, in which “the improvement of one parameter of the system leads to the deterioration of another parameter.” In other words, when something gets better, something else automatically gets worse.
3. Physical contradiction, appearing when two opposite properties are required from the same element of a technical system or from the technical system itself. A given element should have the property A to execute the necessary function and the property anti-A to satisfy the conditions of a problem. In Physical contradiction the conflict is exacerbated to the extreme: the same object must possess opposite properties.
Techniques for resolving the technical contradiction
Steps for Solving an Inventive Problem that contains a Technical Contradiction
Eliminating Technical Contradictions
1. Analyze the technical system. This step determines the system Characteristic (parameter describing the system physical state, performance, etc.) that needs to be improved.
2. State the technical contradiction. The technical system Characteristic that deteriorates at the expense of the one improving is determined, thus identifying the technical contradiction.
3. Resolve the technical contradiction. In this step, the 40 Principles and Contradiction Matrix are utilized to remove the technical contradiction.
Methods for resolving contradictions were identified on the basis of an analysis of hundreds of thousands of patents and forty thousand strong solutions.
Contradiction table 39 x 39
Altshuller constructed a “Contradiction Matrix (Table)” from his research over 40,000 most inventive patents wherein he found that only 39 properties to describe various aspects of systems. They include length, the weight of the object, strength, ease of manufacture, reliability, etc.
Along the vertical axis of this matrix are written parameters that have to be improved and on the horizontal axis – 39 features or parameters will become worse or deteriorate with such improvement. Thus a 39 x 39 table (or a matrix) with key parameters was set up.
Altshuller also identified the 40 Inventive Principles for Eliminating Contradiction.
At the intersection of the two axes of the table are written one or more inventive principle, which has most frequently been used to resolve this type of contradiction.
For example, when a technical contradiction between the volume of a moving object and its speed is considered, the table offers four numbers of inventive principles, namely 29, 4, 38, and 34.
This table is a straightforward lookup table to find which principles can be used for solving an isolated single contradiction between an improving property and a degrading property.
40 inventive principles
These Inventive Principles were identified and used as methods of resolving Technical Contradictions.
A core principle of TRIZ defines an invention as “the removal of a technical contradiction with the help of certain principles.”
The first list of 35 principles was proposed in ARIZ-68. A classic list of 40 principles was presented in ARIZ-71. The final version of the list was given in the book of G.S. Altshuller’s “Algorithm of the Invention” (1973).
Examples of principle for Eliminating Technical Contradictions
a. Divide an object into independent parts.
b. Make an object sectional (for easy assembly and disassembly).
c. Increase the degree of an object’s segmentation.
1. A cargo ship is divided into identical sections. If necessary, the ship can be made longer or shorter.
2. Insurance companies to ensure as a whole body, as well as various Body Parts: legs, arms, eyes, and even lips.
An object can perform several different functions; therefore, other elements can be removed.
1. A briefcase handle can be used as an expander. 2. Child’s car safety seat converts to a stroller.
13. Do It in Reverse
a. Instead of the direct action dictated by a problem, implement an opposite action (i.e., cooling instead of heating).
b. Make the movable part of an object, or outside environment, stationary — and stationary part moveable.
c. Turn an object upside-down.
1. The principle of selling goods on credit. At first, we can get the goods, and then pay for it.
2. An underwater bridge. In some cases, it is more efficient to lay a passage under the river in the form of a tunnel.
22. Convert Harm into Benefit (Blessing in Disguise)
a. Use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or
surroundings) to achieve a positive effect
b. Remove one harmful factor by combining it with another harmful factor.
c. Amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful
Examples: 1. Vaccination. 2. Laser-knife cauterises blood vessels as it cuts
32. Changing the Colour
a. Change the colour of an object or its environment.
b. Change the degree of translucency of an object or its environment.
c. Use colour additives to observe an object, or process which is difficult to see.
d. If such additives are already used, employ luminescent traces or trace atoms.
1. A transparent bandage that allows you to observe the wound without removing the bandage.
2. Plastic spoon which changes colour when hot – for baby food
3. Change the transparency of an object or its external environment
4. In order to improve the observability of things that are difficult to see, use
coloured additives or luminescent elements
Make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties.
1. So that the particles of the rod that transmits ultrasonic vibrations
to the molten metal do not contaminate the metal, the rod is made of the same material.
Physical contradiction: rod should be present to create ultrasonic vibrations but it should not be present in order not to contaminate the metal.
2. The dam is made of bags of water.
3. Make the container out of the same material as the contents, to reduce chemical reactions.
4. Make diamond cutting tools out of diamonds.
Technical contradiction, and inventive principles as the techniques of its elimination, are only an auxiliary intermediate stage of solving a technical problem. The essence of technical contradiction, its cause is always a physical contradiction.
Different formats for the 40 Inventive Principles were developed
2.2. The process of problem-solving by resolving the contradiction
The process of problem-solving consists of identifying a technical contradiction, transforming it into the related physical contradiction and its subsequent resolution.
The chain of actions of an inventive problem solving according to ARIZ:
Administrative contradiction – Technical contradiction – Ideal Final Results – Physical contradiction – Physical contradiction elimination
AC → TC → IFR → FC → FC
The steps of physical contradiction analysis and elimination are presented as follows:
1. The primary problem formulation is based on the identification of a conflicting pair of elements and the determination of a technical contradiction, in which “the improvement of one parameter of the system leads to the deterioration of another parameter.”
2. Formulation of a model of an ideal, creative solution, which consists in improving one parameter without worsening the others.
– The mental creation of an ideal system, that does not exist, but its function is preserved and fulfilled.
– The statement of the problem in the form of a “physical contradiction”, when mutually contradictory and mutually exclusive physical requirements are presented to the same part of the system.
3. Elimination of physical contradiction
– Identification and application of the inventive principle lead to ideas that solve the physical contradiction.
– Determination of available resources for solution
There are 4 groups of techniques for eliminating physical contradictions (in contrast to Principles for resolving technical contradictions) or in other words:
Separation principles for eliminating physical contradictions
Physical Contradictions and Separation Principles first were included in ARIZ-75 and then in the book: Altshuller, G. (1999). The Innovation Algorithm, TRIZ Systematic Innovation and Technical Creativity.
1. Separation of conflicting properties in space. The essence of the technique is to spread the opposite requirements into different parts of the object.
1. Safe fuel tank, divided by partitions into isolated compartments. Part of the compartments is filled with fuel, and part is filled with a substance that extinguishes the flame.
2. The case of a ladder that has to be long and short. The use of the method “Separation of conflicting properties in time” may lead to the design of a “telescopic” ladder.
– Separation by direction. An object could have conflicting properties in different directions in the same space and at the same time. You could have one property in one direction, and the other in another direction.
Examples: Food grater – the blades are sharp in the direction of the grating, but become smooth when the food is pulled over it in the opposite direction.
2. Separation of conflicting properties in time. The contradiction is resolved by the diversity of opposite properties in time.
1. Priests of different religious conduct a worship service in the same church at different times.
2. The aircraft, with changeable geometry of a wing. (PC – Aircraft should fly fast but should fly slowly for minimum change in velocity on landing.)
3. Separation of conflicting properties by system transition and restructuring.
This technique can be implemented in different ways:
– the combination of two systems.
– the transition of the system or its parts to the micro-level,
– endowing the system or its parts with opposite properties.
Separation of conflicting properties in the structure. (Parts and the Whole)
Example. A bicycle chain has rigid links but is flexible at the system level
The bike chain must be both rigid and flexible at the same time. Solution of the contradiction: chain links are rigid and solid, and the whole system is flexible.
4. Separation of conflicting properties by phase transition
The essence of the technique is to change the phase state of the substance. (Solid – liquid – gas – plasma)
This technique can be implemented in different ways. One of them is the replacement of the phase state of a part of the system.
1. Store a universal solvent under freezing conditions.
2. The use of ice as a solid substance that can itself disappear when melted.
3. Use of Slag foam as a lid, which is an excellent heat insulator, is formed on the surface of liquid slag to prevent its solidification during transportation in the ladle. PC: lid on the ladle should be present to prevent solidification but it should not be present for slag discharge.
3. Use of resources
Altshuller concluded that the progress towards ideality is closely linked to the utilization of available resources.
1. In order to achieve an ideal system or to increase the ideality of a system, all the resources available to you should be used, especially very inexpensive resources, and turning anything harmful in the system into something useful.
2. Ideality always reflects the maximum utilization of existing resources within subsystems themselves or within super systems including the environment’s free resources like gravity, air, heat, magnetic field, light etc.
3. There are already available resources, hidden capabilities of the system itself, situations that can be used in solving problems or developing the system.
4. The use of resources leads to the generation of breakthrough innovations and increases the ideality of the system, since we do not add anything to the system, and the result is independently achieved.
New resources will further result in improvement towards a new superior level of system performance.
5. When solving problems, it is necessary to use what is already contained in the system and its environment, that is internal and external free resources.
6. Some tasks are solved only by finding the right resource.
Resources are substances, fields, field properties, function characteristics and other attributes existing in a system and its surroundings, which are available for system improvement.
Substance resources can be divided into several categories. Readily available substance resources are ones that can be used in their existing state. Derived substance resources are resources that can be used after some kind of transformation.
In TRIZ, a system is considered as a «hierarchical system” consisting of supersystem, base system and subsystems. Thus, all available resources of the supersystem, base system and subsystems are taken as “resources” of the system that can be utilized to improve the system.
1. Material (Substances, items, goods, money, equipment, etc.).
2. Information (channels and media).
3. Time Resources (e.g., time of functioning of a system).
4. Space resources (area, volume, occupied space of a system etc.).
5. Energy and Field Resources (thermal, electric, electromagnetic, atomic energy, sound signals, etc.).
6. Human resources (people themselves, as well as their stereotypes, motivation, channels of perception: vision, hearing, smell, touch).
7. Other resources (past events, imaginary future, culture, etc.).
8. ARIZ: Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving
Procedure and Basic stages
1. It is important for new participants to first learn TRIZ terminology and its meaning so that they may effectively utilize TRIZ tools and concepts to solve problems.
2. It is important to be familiar with the philosophy underlying TRIZ tools and techniques in order to be able to fully apply them.
General Steps of ARIZ- the central analytical tool of TRIZ.
1. Identify the current project problem.
2. Compare the problem to an existing TRIZ general problem as discussed later.
3. Identify the TRIZ solution for the general problem.
4. Use the suggested solution to determine the project problem.
І. Problem selection
1.1. Determine the final goal of the task.
1.2. Check workaround (by-pass approach) and look for other problems to be solved in order to obtain the end result.
a) Reformulate the original problem at the level of the sub- super system
b) Reformulate the problem at three levels (systems, sub- and supersystems), replacing the required action or word with the opposite.
1.3. Check whether the problem is solved by direct application of standards for solving inventive problems.
1.4. Apply PBC (STC) operator (size, time, cost).
2. Creation of the problem model
2.1. Write down the conditions of the problem without using special terms.
2.2. Select and record a conflicting pair of elements.
2.3. Record two interactions of the conflicting pair: the existing and the necessary, the useful and the harmful.
2.4. Write down the standard formulation of the problem model, indicating a conflicting pair and a technical contradiction.
3. Analysis of the model and formulation of Ideal Final Result (IFR)
3.1. Choose from the elements included in the task model, one that can be easily changed.
3.2. To write down IFR according to the plan: one of the elements in the conflicting pair itself removes a harmful effect while retaining its capacity to carry out the basic action. The description must necessarily include the words “itself”, “himself”.
3.3. Select the zone of the element that cannot cope with the complexity of interactions required by the IFR, and formulate a physical contradiction for this zone.
3.4. To write down the brief and complete formulation of the physical contradiction, including the words: “it should be and it should not be.”
4. Elimination of physical contradiction
4.1. Transformation of the selected zone of an element and separation of conflicting properties. a) In space. b) In time. c) By restructuring the structure; d) By using transition states
4.2. Use the database of standard models and Substance-Field Modeling transformation.
4.3. Use a database of physical effects.
4.4. Use a table of basic inventive or separation principles
The first version of ARIZ was developed in 1968 and many modifications during the next 20 years were received.
The most used version, ARIZ- 85C, was published in 1985 and contains nine steps.
1. Analysis of the problem.
2. Analysis of the problem’s model.
3. Formulation of the Ideal Final Result (IFR).
4. Utilization of outside substances and field resources.
5. Utilization of informational data bank.
6. Change or reformulate the problem.
7. Analysis of the method that removed the Physical Contradiction.
8. Utilization of found solution.
9. Analysis of steps that lead to the solution.
1. Based on the objective laws of the development of technology and on the accumulation of experience in successfully solving problems, TRIZ allows you to get rid of the enumeration of variants, and immediately find strong solutions to the problem.
Using TRIZ allows a systematic approach to innovation rather than relying on trial and error.
2. TRIZ presents a structured approach to problem-solving and a systematic process that leads to the optimal solution. It allows using standard techniques and principles, as well as the experience of creating hundreds of thousands of effective inventions, to move from an unclear and vague problem to key contradictions and specific tasks.
3. Reliance on resolving key contradictions, focusing on an ideal result and using the hidden resources of the system leads to the generation of super-strong solutions and the creation of breakthrough innovations.
4. The presence of a strict, step-by-step and appropriate to creative situation algorithm for inventive problem solving (ARIZ), disciplines thinking and directs it to obtain the ideal, powerful solutions.
5. TRIZ is a universal method that allows you to successfully solve multilevel problems in all spheres of human life.
6. TRIZ method is successfully applied in such areas of culture as art, science, politics, management, advertising and pedagogy.
7. Understanding the laws of complex systems evolution allows us to predict the development of complex systems, choose promising areas for the development of technology and receive fundamentally new solutions.
8. TRIZ allows to predict and develop a new generation of products and find non-standard ways of their promotion on the market.
9. Application of the TRIZ technique in the field of research and experimental development helps to study previously unknown phenomena and to find applications for new effects.
10. The TRIZ training system covers all ages from kindergarten to university and professionals. Elements and tools of TRIZ can be effectively used by a wide range of people – from children to adults
11. Different methods of creative thinking could be used in the context of TRIZ.
12. Computer software is available.
1. The TRIZ technique is quite complex and requires effort and time to master it, and its effective use requires serious and long-term training.
2. At present, the method is insufficiently structured, lack integrity and internal unity, which is caused by the existence of its numerous versions created by various schools and individual authors.
3. TRIZ has many tools of various complexity, yet there are no clear rules as to which tools should be applied to a particular case.
4. Numerous ARIZ modifications complicate the selection of a specific and strict sequence of problem-solving steps.
5. TRIZ as a science does not sufficiently correlate with other sciences, and as a method, it does not build meaningful connections with other well-known methods of activating creativity.
6. The method does not adequately correlate with the base provisions of the general theory of creativity, with the basic laws and mechanisms of creative activity.
7. TRIZ is developed and developed mainly by representatives of the exact sciences; therefore, it does not sufficiently take into account the psychological and cultural aspects of the process of problem-solving, and also the irrational, unconscious, intuitive and emotional components of creativity.
8. The complexity of introducing TRIZ into production, its direct dependence on the competence of TRIZ masters.
9. Existing modern TRIZ software is quite expensive and available only to large companies.
10. Working with auxiliary computer programs requires a good knowledge of TRIZ.