Universe approach to the main theories of creativity
Universe and metaphysical approach to creativity allows us to defined it as the existence and manifestation of the Absolute, which is unfolded by realization of its universal dimensions or primal ultimate essences:
Being (Whole and Interaction) and Nothing (Possibility and Freedom).
Table 1. Universe approach to theories of Creativity
Creativity as the creation
and realization of the Whole
Creativity as the creation
of the Possibilities
Unfolding of the Absolute
and Creativity of Nature
Creative Attention Perception
Creativity as the Interaction and Combination
Creativity as realization
of the Freedom
1. Сreativity as the unfolding of the Absolute, Creativity of Nature and a universal process of evolution
1.1. Creativity as an embodiment of the Absolute and the co-creation of man with the creative power of the Supreme Reality
Man as an mediator between heaven and earth, as an active, creative force – “qian” (“Book of Changes” (“I Ching”), 16th. -12th. c. BC); Creativity as a secondary act of creation, the unity of Brahman and Atman (Hinduism, 15th. c. BC); The principle of the analogy of human creativity and divine creativity, occurring under the laws of harmony (Neo Pythagoreanism, 1st c. BC-3rd. c. AD); Emanation of the One, out of abundance and surplus (Plotinus, 3rd c. AD, Proclus, 5th c. AD); Co-creation as a one breath with the Absolute reality (Ibn Arabi, 12th-13th c.); Confluence and co-vision with the Divine (M. Eckhart, 13th-14th c.); Unity of Creator and creation, the creative power of man (Nicholas of Cusa, 15th. c.); Co-creation with the Absolute and Nature through transcendental intuitive contemplation (F. Schelling, 1802); Self-revelation of the Absolute Spirit (Hegel, 1807); Embodiment of beauty, harmony, perfection and spiritual which are contained in Nature (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); The concept of “transcreation” or complementary act of God, raising the soul from animality to humanity; Implementation of the divine creative force of will, living in a man, free creativity of substantial figures (N.O. Lossky, 1906, 1927); Creativity as super-personal experience, “escape from emotion and personality”, expression and development of tradition living within the creator (T.S. Eliot, 1920, 1932); Creativity as a free self-realization of person, as a spiritual being, transforming and embodying the absolute values (R. T. Flewelling, 1926); Implementation of universal archetypes (C. Jung, 1928); Co-creation with God (N. Berdyaev, 1935); Human Creativity as a creative expression of absolute, universal force (Nishida Kitaro, 1927, 1945); Creativity as the forming principle and way of a human being, person as the primary creative reality (E. Mounier, 1936); Evolution as the concentration and planetarization of consciousness (Teilhard de Chardin, 1955).
1.2. Сo-creation with the ultimate Creative force by achieving the higher states of consciousness
Achieving liberation (Moksha) and dissolution in the Absolute (Hinduism, 15 th. c. BC); Creativity as a result of divine inspiration (Plato,5th – 4th.c. BC); State of “super-sensible ” ecstasy and ecstatic ascent of the human soul to the One (Plotinus, 3rd. c. AD, Proclus (5th.c.AD); “Prophetic inspiration”, the transcendental ecstasy (R. W. Emerson, 1836; H. D. Thoreau, 1854); Achievement and embodiment of the Cosmic Consciousness (R.M. Bucke, 1901); Mystic psychography, automatic writing, clairvoyance (T. Flournoy, 1900), Divine intuition (J. Maritain, 1953); Activity of supra-conscious (P. Sorokin, 1961); Peak-experience, transcendental ecstasy (A.Maslow, 1968); The unity of creativity and Psi-phenomena: motivation, relaxation and dissociation (Gardner Murphy, 1969); Transpersonal experience and perception (Roy Dreistadt, 1971); Extrasensory perception, hypersensitivity, telepathy (S. Krippner, G. Murphy, 1966, 1973); Implementation of creative higher states of consciousness (S.Tart, 1975); Dreaming as the deployment of a hidden order (M. Ullman, 1973, 1979); Reaching the state of Flow (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975); Creativity as an activity of Super-consciousness (K. Stanislavsky, 1926, 1938; P.V. Simonov, 1975); Over-consciousness (M.G. Yaroshevsky, 1983); Manifestation of the highest unconscious (the highest form of intuition and inspiration) (R. Assadzholi, 1973); Manifestation of the super-conscious and realization of the spectrum of creativity (W. Harman, J. Reinhold, 1984); Creativity as a transcendental meditation (R. Walsh, D. Shapiro, 1984, 2006, Michael Murphy, S. Donovan, 1988, 1997; M. Kwee, 1990; M. Murphy, R. White, 1995; R. Horan, 2009); Expansion and widening of consciousness, realization of the universal creative force (S. Grof, 1998).
1.3. Creative Vision of the World
A Spiritual Vision (Darshan) as an intuitive enlightenment and rational understanding of reality (Hinduism, 15th.c. BC); Contemplation (refined thought) as the fullness of the mind and visualization (Cun Xiang) (Daozizm, 6th c. BC); Penetrating vision (vipassana) and enlightenment (Buddhism, 6th. c. BC); Contemplation of ideas, entities, and beauty (Plato, 5th-4th c. BC); The highest value of the metaphysical, “disinterested contemplation” as the beginning of the knowledge (Aristotle, 4 th. c. BC);The spiritual vision (Plotinus, 3th. AD); Intuitive, inner, superconscious contemplation of essences (Augustine, 4th -5th c.); Transcendental mystical vision of the truth (al-Ghazali, 11th.-12th. c., Ibn ‘Arabi, 12th -13th c. ); Achievement of satori and the acquisition of a new vision (Zen Buddhism, 12th c.); Aesthetic , productive contemplation (F.Shelling, 1800), Creativity as the contemplation of pure essences (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Eidetic intuition and constitution of meaning (E. Husserl, 1913); Transcendental, intuitive vision of the entities and the identification of consciousness with the world (N.O.Lossky, 1908; N.A. Berdyaev, 1916; S.L. Frank, 1917); Person’s Vision as a source of creativity and creation of the worlds of culture (G. Simmel, 1911,1918); Transition from action to the vision, the unity of the transcendental and phenomenological vision from the standpoint of absolute emptiness “Basho” (Nishida Kitaro, 1927); The aesthetic attitude and perception of the world (A.A.Melik-Pashayev, 1990); Creative vision as the unity of creative stand (meta-attitude), higher state of consciousness and method. (S.L. Markov, 1997, 2011).
Processes: Creative perception: Perceiving of the world in an unhabitual way (W. James, 1890); A special sensitivity to the aesthetic beauty and harmony (H. Poincaré, 1908); Creativity as an ability to regard the old problems from a new angle (A. Einstein, L. Infeld, 1938 ); Sensitivity to problems (J. Guilford, 1950); Creative visual perception, the unity of perception and thought (R. Arnheim, 1954.1969); Fusion of perceptions which is carried out in a new way (Peter McKellar, 1957), Creativity as the perception of complexity and uncertainty (F. Barron, 1958); Creativity as an allocentric perception and completely absorbing in the object Ernest G.Schachtel (1959); The ability to see the familiar as a strange and the strange as a familiar (W. Gordon, 1961); Process of sensing gaps or disturbing missing elements (E.Torrance,1962); Creativity as b-cognition which involves experiencing the object as a whole A. Maslow (1962); The Creative Vision as a longitudinal study of Problem Finding (W. Getzels, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1976); Creative perception (K.J. Goodman, D.I. Marquard,1978); Perception, creating images as a component of visual thinking and creativity (R.H. McKim, 1980); Processes of visual code manipulation and cross-modal transformations (J. Guilford, 1981, 1983); Perception as the primal and basic process of creative activity (Richard L. Gregory, 1970, 1987); Creativity as the perception of art ( Antony J. Chapman, 1984); Intentional variation of point of views toward the object (Edward de Bono, 1985); A Configural Conception of Creativity (John H. Flowers, Calvin P. Garbin, 1989); Creativity as mindfulness, openness to experience and flexibility (Ellen J. Langer, 1989, 2000); The creative perception (L. Friedel, 1992); Creative perception, cognition and dynamic representation (Steven M. Smith, Thomas B. Ward, Ronald A. Finke, 1992, Beverly Roskos-Ewoldsen, 1993); Creativity as the Playful Perception (Herbert L. Leff, 1994); Creativity, perception Imagination: Representation and Transformation in Mental Imagery (Daniel Reisberg, Robert H. Logie, Geir Kaufmann, Maria A. Brandimonte, 1996).
Creativity as Synesthesia and Cross-Modal Representations. Creativity and syncretic perception (L. Marks,1978; E. Lawrence, 1982; Audrey Dailey, Colin Martindale, Jonathan Borkum,1998); Creativity as Synaesthesia (G. Domino 1989); Synesthesia and physiognomic perception (A. Dailey, C. Martindale, J. Borkum 1997).
Imagery, imagination and visualization. Visual imagery and the manipulation of visual codes (R.N. Shepard, 1978, 1981); Transformation of verbal problems in visual images (J.L. Adams, 1979); Creative Visualization (S. Gawain , 1982); Creative perception and percept-genesis (S. Smitt, 1990, van den Meer, 1994); The imagery-creativity (S. Daniels-McGhee, G. A. Davis, 1994);
Perception, Imagery, Perceptual Symbol Systems (R.A. Finke 1990; T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith, 1992, 1995); Perceptual activity, imagination and creativity (Nigel J. T. Thomas, 1999, 2002); Creativity as visualization, deautomatizationand and synesthetic process (G.Cupchic,1999); Visualization and creative problem-solving (R. Arp, 2005); A Computer Model of Creativity Based on Perceptual Activity Theory (P.J. Blain, 2006).
Analogical perception. Synesthetic perception and poetic methaphor (L. Marks, 1982); Analogy as high level perception (D.J. Chalmers, R.M. French, D. R. Hofstadter, 1992, M. Mitchell, 1993, C. T. Morrison, E Dietrich, 1995, K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, A. B. Markman, R. W. Ferguson, 1998, D. Hofstadter, 2001).
Creative attention. Creativity as defocused attention and breadth of attention (G. Mendelsohn, 1976; J. Kasof 1997; K. Urban, 2003); The concentration of information and spreading throughout the semantic networks (C. Martindale 1995); The process of focusing, defocusing of attention (P.A. Howard-Jones, S. Murray, 2003); include selective encoding, selective comparison and selective combination (T.Lubart, 2003); The focus of attention as a factor of creativity (R.S. Friedman, 2003; L.Y. Dorfman, VA Gasimova, 2006; O. M. Razumnikova, 2008); Creativity as variability and flexibility of attention (O. Vartanian, 2009).
1.4. Creativity of Nature
Unfolding of Prakriti (Nature’s creative potential), through three gunas – principles of creation [sattva (lightness, wisdom), rajas (passion, impetus), tamas (inertia)] (“The Mahabharata”, “The Bhagavad Gita”, 6th-4th c. BC); Entelechy as the inner active principle and tendency to formation (Aristotle, 4th. BC); Creativity of genius, as a manifestation of the innate mental disposition (ingenium) through which Nature gives the rule to Art (I. Kant, 1790); Manifestation of an Universal Will (A. Schopenhauer, 1819); Creativity as the essence of nature and life (L. Feuerbach, 1843); Evolutionary Love (Ch. Peirce, 1893); Self-development and self-revelation of the world as a hierarchy of personalities (W. Stern, 1906-1924); Creative Evolution (A. Bergson, 1907); Creativity as a continuation of the living nature evolution (A. Lezin, 1907; P. K. Engelmeyer, 1910), Creativity of animate and inanimate Nature (M. Bloch, 1920), Emergent Evolution (S. Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, 1923); Creativity as a reconstruction of the birth process (Otto Rank, 1924); Realization of Creative Cosmic Force (A. Whitehead,1929); Manifestation of the Vital Force (George Coghill, 1929; Herbert Read, 1943; S. Buhler, 1951; E. Sinnott, 1955, 1957; Th. Dobzhansky, 1954, 1974); Highest manifestation of the principle of Self-duplication (H. Gutman,1961); Creativity as quality of protoplasm and the primary, fundamental quality of life (Harold H. Anderson, 1960); Creativity as a Life Force (d’Arsy Hayman, 1960; G. Kneller (1965); The model of the creative generative grammar (N. Chomsky, 1955, 1967); Creativity as an accretive, replicative mutual growtn (George T.L. Land, 1974); Creativity as a productive form of development (Y.A. Ponomarev, 1976); Creativity as a special form of development (D. Feldman, H. Gruber, 1982, 1986); Recursive deployment of the base system (A.V. Anisimov,1988); Creativity as a form of evolution (H. Bloom, 1995, 2010; L. Gabora, 1997; K. Urban, 2003); Creativity as a global, universal evolution (E. Jantsch, 1980; F. Capra, 1989; N.N. Moiseev, 1989, H. Morowitz, 2002, T. Lombardo, 2011); Creative processes theory based on evolutionary mega synthesis (A.G.Yushchenko, 2008).
Process: Creativity as generation and selection of combinations.
Producing random images through spontaneous variation, which the outer environment selects (W. James, 1890); Generation of random combinations or ideas and their creative choice (H. Poincare,1913); Production of random combinations of possible solutions to a problem and their critical evaluation (J.Hadamard ,1954); Blind variation and selective retention: variation, selection and retention (D.T. Campbell, 1960); Generation of alternatives, selection, retention (D.N. Perkins, M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1988); Chance permutation, formation configurations, social acceptance (D.Simonton, 1988).
1.5. Creativity as mutual transitions of Being and Nothing
The appearance and disappearance as a mutual transitions of chaos and cosmos, the limit and infinity (Anaximander, 7th -6th c. BC, Pythagoras, 6th -5th c. BC); Emergence of Being inside Nothing, in the process of permanent mutual transition of universal polar forces the yin and the yang (Laozi, 6th -5th c. BC); Flow of becoming which involves being and nothing as its separate aspects (Heraclitus, 6th -5th c. BC); Creativity as a transition from Nothing into Being (Plato, 5th – 4th BC); Creation as a transition from invisible state to visible one (Sextus Empiricus, 2nd – 3rd c. AD); Creativity as self-unfolding and folding of the Absolute, as the coincidence of opposites (coincidentia oppositorum) (Nicholas of Cusa, 1460); Development and becoming as the transition from being to nothing (and conversely) (Hegel, 1806).
Synergetic model of creativity. Autopoiesis: self-generation, self-organization, self-production (H. Maturana, F. Varela, 1973); Universal process of birth order and form out of chaos (R. May, 1975); Creativity as a spontaneous generation of order out of chaos (Ilya Prigogine, 1980, 1984, H. Haken, 1981); Creativity and development as a spontaneous and directed transformation (D. Feldman, 1988); Creativity as a Spontaneous self-organization of Metaconscience (V.V. Nalimov, 1989); Creativity as self-organization as the path from chaos to the integrity and coherence (F. Barron, 1990), Creativity as overcoming the chaos, the union of order and disorder and the creation of a new qualitative patterns (V. Kenny, H. Gardner, 1988, E. Morin, 1994; S. Kauffman, 1995); Chaos as a creative origin, as a complicated order, as a condition and source of self-organization and creativity (E.N. Knyazeva, S.P . Kurdyumov, 1988, 1992; D. Chernavskiy, 1990; I.S. Dobronravova, 1991; V.I. Arshinov 1977; R.A. Brage, 2004; A.A. Koblyakov, 2010; O.I. Glazunova, 2012); The unity of understanding of creativity both in the Synergetic and Eastern philosophy (F. Capra, 1989; E.N. Knyazeva, 1992; T.P. Grigorieva, 2002).
2. Creative Interaction
Relationship between individual and materials, people, circumstances (Rogers,1962); Transactional relationships between the individual and environment (Stein,1962); Model of four dimensions of creativity (“logic of life”): interaction with the universe; interaction with the self; the transaction between the two; continual fitting of specific incomings and outgoings (R. Mooney, 1963); Fusion of heterogeneous elements, such as the unity between the actions of the subject and the objective world (F. Hacker, 1965); Creativity as a harmonious interaction of the individual with his environment (H. Anderson, 1965); Encounter, interrelation of person and his world (May,1975); Creativity as a developmental interaction (J.A. Ponomarev, 1976); Creativity as an adaptation, interaction with the environment and development ( Jean Piaget, 1971; Howard E. Gruber, Paul H. Barrett, 1974; D. Feldman, 1980); The interaction between a person and the organizational environment (W.A. Owens, 1969; P. Wesenberg, 1986; M.J. Kirton, R.M. McCarthy,1988.; C.S. Koberg, L.H. Chusmir, 1987); An ecological approach to creativity (C.L. Rodgers, R.E. Kerstetter, 1974; M. Stein, 1975; R. Helson, 1988; D. Harrington, 1990); The investment theory of creativity as a willing and ability to “buy low and sell high” (R.Sternberg, T. Lubart, 1995,1997); Ecological and interactive approach to creativity, as the interaction between person, process, product and environment (Donald J. Treffinger, 1987; Scott G. Isaksen, Geir Kaufmann, Gerard J. Puccio, Mary C. Murdock, 1990).
Process: The creative association and memory. Accidental combination of already existing images and parts ( Lukretius Carus (1st century B.C.); Art as a combination of real phenomena (Apollonius of Tyana, 1 st century AD); The process of connecting, comparing, and separation of ideas (John Locke, 1689); Association of sensations, ideas and feelings (George Berkeley, 1709, D. Hartley, 1749); Association as a mechanism for turning simple ideas into complex (D. Hume, 1739); The interaction of the productive imagination and the transcendental apperception (I. Kant, 1781); Active unconscious associations (G. Herbart, 1816); Spontaneous association in which the order of ideas” is independent of the order of sensations (Th. Brown, 1820); Creative synthesis within the theory of “mental chemistry” (John Stuart Mill, 1843); “Constructive association” and the spontaneous action (A. Bain, 1859); Creativity as the intersection and transitions between ideas, and creating unusual combinations, associations and analogies (W. James, 1890); The theory of recombination (dissociation – regrouping – association) (T. Ribot, 1901); Dissociation and association of the impressions, a combination of individual mental images (L.S.Vygotsky, 1930); Creativity as an intellectual ability to make connections between ideas (Ch. Spearman, 1931); The intersection of two ideas (O.A. Keep, 1957); Bisociation of “matrices of thought” (A. Koestler,1964); Remote Associations (S. Mednic,1962); The interaction between the right and left hemispheres (J.E. Bogen, G.M. Bogen, 1969; S.P Springer, G. Deutsch, 1989; T. Hines, 1991; G.A Golitsin, O.N. Kamensky, V. M. Petrov, 1989, 2007; Annukka K. Lindell, 2010, 2011); The interaction between logical and intuitive components of thinking (Ya. A. Ponomarev, 1976); The simultaneous presentation of two or more opposing ideas or essences (Janusian and Homospatial thinking) (A. Rothenberg,1979 ); The interaction between perception and action (responses) (Robert Weisberg, 1986); Creative Association (G. Mendelsohn, 1976; M. Marx, W.A. Hillix (1987); Conceptual combination (J.A. Humpton, 1987,1997; G.L Murphy, 1988; M.I. Mobley, L.M. Doares, 1991; (J.A. Humpton, 1987,1997; G.L Murphy,1988; M.I. Mobley, L.M. Doares, 1991; M.D. Mumford, 1992, 1995; F. J. Castello, M.T. Keane, 2000; C.L. Gagne, 2000, G.M. Scott, D.C. Lonergan, 2003; P. Thagard, T.B. Ward, 1984, 2010); Creative memory, association and original insight (P. Langley and R. Jones, 1988; D.L. Schacter, P.Graf, 1989); Creating a visual combinations (A. Rothenberg, R.S. Sobel,1980; R.A. Finke, 1990).
Creating analogies and metaphors. Interaction between direct and indirect meanings (Interaction theory of metaphor) (Max Black 1962, Marcus Hester 1967); Analogizing as the transfer of knowledge (D. Gentner, C. Toupin, 1983,1986; Lauretta Reeves, Robert W.Weisberg, 1994; K. Holyoak, P. Thagard,1995); Analogical thinking as the ability to make connections between certain objects, concepts or problems (G.A. Davis, 2004); Creating analogies as the transfer of conceptual structures (H.Welling, 2006).
3. Creativity as the creation and realization of the Whole
Harmonisation of Life Path with the Universal Flow (“The Book of Changes” (“I Ching”), 16th -12th century BC); Actions managed by the universal laws of the Tao, the implementation of the principle of non-actions (wu-wei) (Laozi, 6th c. BC); Imitation (Mimesis) (Democritus, Plato, 5th – 4th c. BC, Aristotle, 4th c. BC); Actions in accordance with the divine cosmic plan, the subordination of nature, following the natural course of things (Stoicism, 4th BC); Imitation of beautiful nature (Charles Batteux, 1746); “Creative synthesis” as the union of the physical elements and as qualitatively unique integrity that define an associative links (W. Wundt, 1880); The openness to the whole, achieving the unity and harmony with the primary entities of the Universe (H. Anderson, 1965); Integrating of a separated parts of knowledge stored in the memory into a coherent whole (W. Keller, 1930; M. Wertheimer, 1945); Finding a balance between subject and object, individual and the universe (S.Arieti, 1976); “Transdimensional transition” from the disjunction to the conjunction, from opposition to the complementarity and to the creation of a metasystem (A.A. Koblyakov, 2003).
Creativity as forming and transformation: Integration of facts, impressions and feelings into a new form (J.D. Porsche, 1955); Creating a new and useful patterns (G.M. Read, 1955); Translation of knowledge and ideas into a new form (A. Duhrssen, 1957); Structuring and the transformation of a meanings of a text as a separate goal and the result of creativity (Roland Barthes, 1957; Julia Kristeva, 1971); The ability to reformulate and reorganize (V. Lowenfeld, 1962); Directed transformations through co-incidence, co-ordination and fittest (D. Feldman,1979); Creativity is the process of generating unique products by transformation of existing products (P. Welch, 1980); Transformative Wisdom (W. Harman, H. Rhengold, 1984); Creativity as a transformative thinking (J.Wycoff, T. Richardson, 1995); Intention to transform the objective world, couple with the ability to decide when this is useful ( M. Runco,1996); Creativity is any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1996).
Process: Transformative thinking and insight. Immediately visual grasping of the good structure through insight (W. Keller, 1917; N. Maier, 1931 K. Duncker, 1945; J.W. Schooler, J. Melcher, 1995); The reorganization, regrouping and centering of structures by choosing a good structure (M. Wertheimer, 1945); Visual perception as the creating a complete images and immediate grasping of reality (R. Arnheim, 1954); The transformation of knowledge, creation of new patterns, a transformation of meaning or use the functions of objects in a new way (J. Guilford, 1962, 1967); Problem Solving as the process of integration, reorganization and restructuring of existing experience (M. D. Mumford, K. A. Olsen, L. R.James,1988); The transformation of conceptual spaces (M. Boden, 1990); Reorganization of habitual patterns and creating a new “Mind Maps” (Tony Buzan, 1972, 1974); Insight as executing moves that maximally reduce the distance between current and goal state (J. MacGregor, T. Ormerod, E. Chronicle, 2001); The representational change theory – achievement of insight by geting rid of fixations, self-imposed constraints and interfering associations (R.E. Mayer, 1995; S.M. Smith, 1995; Knoblich, G., Ohlsson, S., G. E. Raney, 2001; A.J.K. Pols, 2002; M.A. Schilling, 2005); Evolutionary theory of insight (Joseph Campbell, 1960; D. Simonton, 1995; A.J.K. Pols, 2002; M.A. Schilling, 2005); The processes of incubation and insight in creative problem solving (S. Ohlsson, 1992; S.M. Smith, R.A. Dodds, 1999); Transformation of meaning as the creation of metaphors (D. S. Miall, 1983); Neurual model of insight (E.M. Bowden, M. Jung-Beeman, J. Fleck, J.Kounios, 2005); Insight as the results of integration of explicit and implicit knowledge and CLARION theory ( S.Helie, R. Sun, 2010).
4. Creativity as the creation and implementation of Possibilities
Creativity as an realization of the “Mystical potency” (Laozi, 6th c. BC); Creativity as “feeding the life” (shang yang), the realization of the “fullness of life characteristics” (Chuang-tzu, 4th c. BC); Emptiness as a treasure and reason of self-generation of things and entities (Nagarjuna, 2nd -3rd c. AD, Wang Bi, 2nd c. AD); Creativity as an «Inventio» and imagination (Lorenzo Valla, Leonardo da Vinci, 15 c.); The creation as a selection of the best of all possible worlds (Gottfried W. Leibniz, 1714); Creativity as the creation of multiple possibilities of being, raising to a higher power and potencies (F. Schelling, 1799, 1803); Creativity as an experience of mystery, implementation of the supernatural, mystical, intimate, wonderful and unknown entities (F. Schlegel, 1799, Novalis, 1837); The mysterious and “essential unpredictability “of creativity (L. Briskman, 1980); Creativity as searching for possibilities, transition from the “is” to the “maybe”(Edward de Bono, 1978); Creativity as creation of the “secondary worlds” and languages construction (J.R.R. Tolkien, 1931); Construction of worlds “phantocreatics” (Stanislaw Lem, 1964); Create a stand-alone possible worlds (R. Bradley, N., Swartz 1980; D. Lewis, 1986; L. Dolezel, 1988; M.L. Rayan, 1991; М. I. Spariosu, 1997); Creation a Fictional Worlds (T. G. Pavel, 1986 ); Creating a virtual worlds (N.A. Nosov, 1994; S.S. Horuzhy, 1997; N.B. Mankovskaya, 2000); Construction of all possible worlds, playing with the text (R. Barthes, 1973; J. L. Borges, 1982; U. Eco, 1983); Creating a system of possible worlds as enhancing creativity (V.S. Efimov, A.V. Laptev, S.V. Ermakov, 1994); Constraction as creating a multiplisity of contingent worlds, potentiation of being, the transition from real to the possible, possibilitation of existence (M. Epstein, 2003); Construction of the Worlds (A.G. Asmolov, V.A. Petrovsky, 2009).
Play as the actualization of individual’s and environment’s potential. (L.S. Vygotsky, 1933, J. Piaget, 1962; D. Winnicot; James E. Johnson, 1976; G.Fein,1987; S. Ayman-Nolley, 1999; D. Schafer, 2006; B. Pearson, S.W. Russ, , S. Spannagel, 2008).
Possibility thinking (A. Craft, 2000, 2001; B. Jeffrey, 2003, 2005; A. Craft, T. Grainger, P. Burnurd, 2006).
Process: The creative imagination, fantasy.
Consideration of world from the attitude Als ob – “as if” (I. Kant, 1790; Hans Vaihinger, 1911); Construction and potentiation as a free positing of first principles and rising to the higher possibilities (F. Schelling, 1803); Imagination as the highest level of creativity and thinking (I.E. Golosovker, 1961, 1987); Irrational process, a play and the free flight of fantasy (F.Shlegel, 1799, Novalis, 1837); Romanticizing and a qualitative potentization of the world (Novalis, 1837), Fantasies as a unconscious desires fulfillment (love and power) (S. Freud, 1908); Imagination as a unity of mental functions (L.S. Vygotsky, 1930); Creative Imagination: high level integration of creativity and imagery (B. Forisha (1983); The identity of the mechanisms of perception and imagination (S.M. Kosslyn, 1983); Imagination as indirect generation and exploration of mental images (preinventive forms) (R. Finke, 1990; S. M. Kosslyn, 1990; T.B. Ward, 1995; John C. Houtz, C. Patricola, 1999; Arthur I. Miller, 2000; P. Harris, 2000; D.Nettle, 2001; A. R. Damasio, 2001; N. Le Boitiller, D.F. Marks, 2003); Creativity as a fantasy (figurative and verbal elements) (I.M. Rozet, 1991); Creating of the worlds as Recentering (M.L. Rayan, 1991); Creating hypotheses and gaps (lacunas), which activating the imagination and interpretations (L. Dolezel, 1988); The implementation of mechanism and creative technique “What if?» (A. Craft, B. Jeffrey, 2003); Rational imagination as a way to create an alternate reality (R.M.J. Byrne, 2005); Creativity and imagination as an openness and a passion for possibility, for “what could be” (Maxine Greene, 2007).
5. Creativity as achievement and realization of a Freedom
Sunyata as an “emptying of consciousness”, releasing from the rigid views and unnecessary attachments (Buddha, 6th. c. BC, Nagarjuna, 2nd -3rd c. AD); Skepticism as the fight against dogma and authority, “refraining from judgments” (Pyrrho, 4th c. BC ); Doubt the reliability of perception (Sextus Empiricus, 2nd c. AD); Free will – free choice of participating in the divine creation (Augustine, 388-395); Creativity as a liberation from the shackles of time, from the bondage of karma, from purpose and result, “dropping of body and mind” and following the inner creative nature (Chan Buddhism, Hueynen, 7- 8 th. c. AD., Zen Buddhism, Dogen, 13th c.); Free will and creativity as the essence of man, free creative realization of its own nature (Pico della Mirandolla (ed.1496); Free thinking, rejection of dogma, assertion of freedom of the mind, skepticism and doubt as a method of disclosure of internal nature (Montaigne, 1580; B. Pascal (ed.1669), David Hume (1739); The state of the free play of the cognitive faculties” (Kant, 1790); Cognition as a creative expression of freedom, producing a image of the thing, creation of the truth in his own work (I.G. Fichte, 1797); Awakening of “Dionysian spirit”, annihilation and revaluation of values (F. Nietzsche, 1872); Theory of primitive religion and poetry, as the realization of universal irrational structures (J. Fraser, 1890); Creativity as the free from social constraints, irrational, creative flow of life (W. Dilthey, 1906 ; G. Simmel, 1911; O.Spengler, 1918); Creativity as the vital force or impulse of life (élan vital ) (A. Bergson, 1907); Creativity as an expression , confirmation and realization of substantial freedom (N. Berdyaev, 1911, 1916); Creativity as a phenomenological reduction, transcending of the natural attitude, purification from reality, and the constitution of meaning (E. Husserl, 1913); “The absolute free will”, which arises from the absolute emptiness (“creative nothingness”) as the heart of the human and the center of the creative universe (Nishida Kitaro, 1920); Creativity and freedom, as an eternally live spontaneity of human personal spiritual center (M. Scheler, 1927); Movement and occurrence of the thought inside the lumen of freedom (M. Heidegger, 1935); The primordial inner freedom, a free implementation of the project and exercise free choice (J. P Sartre, 1946); Deconstructing the obvious content, provocativness, destruction of centrisms and stereotypes, intellectual game, freedom of interpretation and release of new meanings (J.Derrida, 1967, G. Deleuze, F. Guattari, 1972; J. F. Lyotard, 1979); Theory of “epistemological anarchism” or “methodological liberlism” , principle “Everything is going” (P. Feyerabend, 1975).
Process: Creative intuition, free unconscious activity, transcendence and deconstruction
The theory of accidental discoveries and Serendipity (H. Walpole, 1774; R.M. Roberts, 1989); Destruction, deconstruction, denial, Absurdisation, annihilation of old and unimportant, reappraisal (Max Stirner, 1844, Friedrich Nietzsche, 1886, Heidegger , 1927; J.P. Sartre, 1943, Camus, 1951, Keiji Nishitani, 1967 J. Derrida, 1967), Intuition as instinct (A. Bergson, 1907); Realization of unconscious desires, general unconscious mechanisms and free associations (S. Freud, 1908, 1938); Creativity as “transcendence”, as life’s and person’s reaching beyond itself (G. Simmel, 1911); Subconscious creativity and intuition (A . Poincaré, 1913, Hadamard, 1945); Creativity as the unity of a free existence and transcendence, as overcoming of the boundary situations (K. Jaspers, 1935); Discovery and creativity as irrational, intuitive processes (H. Reichenbach, 1938 K. Popper , 1968); “Regression in the service of the ego” (E. Kris, 1957); Preconscious activity (L.S. Kubie, 1958); Paleologic thinking (transformations of endocepts) (S. Arieti, 1976); Deviation from the usual ways of problem solving and overcoming functional fixedness (N. R. F. Maier, 1931; K. Duncker, 1945; R.E. Adamson, 1952; T.P German, H.C., Barrett, 2005); Destructive process of breaking old patterns (H.A. Shepard, 1957); Adventurous thinking (F. C. Bartlett, 1958); Divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, ability to generate multiple ideas (J. Guilford,1959); Lateral thinking (E. De Bono, 1967); Theory of random variation (D. Campbell, 1960) and chance configurations (D. Simonton, 1988); “Deconstruction”, “destruction/reconstruction” of a text (J. Derrida, 1967); Creation of structures, moving mosaic of fundamentally secondary discrete elements, which are permanently altering its configuration relative to each other (R. Barthes, 1972); Creativity as a libaration of the unconscious (W. Harman, H. Rheingold, 1984); Kaleidoscope thinking (M. Kanter, 1988); Creative Problem-Solving Through Dreams (P. Garfield, 1974; R.D.Cartwright, 1974; M. Schatzman (1983), S. Krippner, J. Dillard, 1988; D.Barrett, 1993, 2007; G.L.White, L. Taytroe (2003); U. Wagner, S. Gais, H. Haider, R. Verleger, J. Born, 2004; T. Stumbrys, 2009); Blind variations and chance configurations (D. Simonton, 1993); Deep unconscious cognitive activation (D.M. Wegner, L. Smart, 1997); Creative emergence as sudden arising of new patterns and structures possessing new properties, “self-trancedentindg construction” (J. Goldstein,1999, S. Strogatz, 2003); Creativity as an activating Unconscious Thought and awakening of background knowledge (A. Dijksterhius, T. Meurs, L.F. Nordgen, 2006; M.W. Bos, R.B.Baaren, 2008; C.B. Zhong, A, A. D. Galinsky, 2008; Simone M. Ritter, Rick B. van Baaren, A. Dijksterhuis, 2011); Creativity as using of chaotic process of the unconscious (N.C. Andreasen, 2011).
Intuition. Intuition as a creative process (F. Vaughan, 1979; J. Metcalfe, D. Wiebe, 1987; K.S. Bowers, G. Regehr, C. Balthazard, K. Parker, 1990; W. Wippich, 1994; J. Langan-Fox, D. Shirley, 2003; A. Bolte, T. Goschke, 2005; Gladwell, M. 2005; Zhou Zhijin, Zhao Xiaochuan, Liu Chang, 2005); Intuition, creativity, dialogue and tacit knowledge (M. Quinn, 2002);
Emotion and intuition (A. Bolte, T. Goschke, J. Kuhl, 2003); Manifestation of the “intellectual subconscious» (G. Claxton, 2005); A fundamental bridging construct in the behavioural sciences (G.P. Hodgkinson, J. Langan-Fox, E. Sadler-Smith, 2008); Intuition as a Problem-solving (J.I. Fleck, J. Kounios, 2009); Strategic intuition and decision-making (N. Khatri, 2000, G. Klein, 2003; W. Duggan, 2007); The use of intuition in education (R.M. Hogarth, 2001); Intuition in business and practical life (LA Robinson, 2006; K. Cloninger, 2006).